Visual Literacy and Pedagogy: An Annotated Bibliography

Written primarly by Katharine Seiffert

Adams, Dennis M. Electronic learning: issues and teaching ideas for educational computing, television, and visual literacy . Springfield, IL: Thomas, 1987.

Chandler, Daniel. Semiotics: the basics. New York: Routledge, 2002.

Considine, David M., and Gail E. Haley. Visual messages: integrating imagery into instruction. 2nd ed. Englewood, CO: Teacher Ideas Press, 1999.

Dawtrey, Liz [et. al.]. Critical studies and modern art. New Haven : Yale University Press in association with the Open University, The Arts Council of England and The Tate Gallery, 1996.

Dondis, Donis A. A primer of visual literacy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1973.

Dondis provides an in-depth analysis of visual literacy and the development of visual awareness and experience from the point of birth through the then-innovative technology of television. Dondis describes the categorization of images along a popular to fine art scale and stresses the impact that photography has on visual learning. This book provides (mainly K-8 and secondary level) teachers with innumerable exercises to apply to the classroom and for individual use. It also provides explanations of important artistic terms, such as positive and negative space, and techniques for visual communication, such as understatement, predictability, economy, and unity. This book is primarily useful for those wishing to expand their knowledge of visual communication and visual literacy with applications available for the classroom.

Downing, Pamela; Susan D. Lima, and Michael Noonan, eds. The Linguistics of literacy. Philadelphia: J. Benjamins Pub. Co., 1992.

Fransecky, Roger B. Visual literacy: a way to learn--a way to teach. Washington, DC: Association for Educational Communications and Technology, 1972.

Fransecky describes visual literacy in great detail and its place in the “television generation.” Fransecky provides definitions of language (deep structure and surface structure), audiovisual viewpoint, and visual literacy viewpoint. Given its publication date (1972), this book is not oriented toward computers. This book is a valuable tool for mainly K-8 teachers as it provides classroom activities to enhance the visual literacy of students at that ability. Secondary and post-secondary education teachers would benefit from definitions and brief histories provided but nearly none of the applications.

Hubbard, Ruth. Authors of pictures, draughtsmen of words. Portsmouth, N.H.: Heinemann, 1989.

Johnston, Michelle and Nancy Cooley. Supporting New Models of Teaching and Learning through Technology. Arlington, VA: Educational Research Service, 2001.

Addressed to secondary-school teachers, this book is helpful in providing examples of educational advances, in terms of pedagogy and technology, while lightly touching base on the role and definition of visual literacy.

Joyce, Michael. Of Two Minds: Hypertext, Pedagogy, and Poetics. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1995.

Joyce differentiates between hypertext and hypermedia: he discusses electronic writing as both visual and verbal, paying particular attention to spatial realization on the screen. Joyce discusses images that can be "read" as texts, and vice versa. He focuses on fostering a classroom of co-learners, the teacher among them.

Lui, Kecheng, [et. al.], eds. Information, organisation, and technology: studies in organisational semiotics. Boston: Kluwer Academic Pub., 2001.

Messaris, Paul. Visual "literacy": image, mind, and reality. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994.

We use images more for description than analysis: "Making students more aware of the representational conventions of images is not likely to give them access to an analytical apparatus they would otherwise have lacked . . . ." (27). He is arguing here against Howard Gardner's claim that "intelligence should not be thought of as a single phenomenon but rather as comprising a number of distinct types of mental ability" (27). Images can be use dto teach if not used as a language, and used in ways that language/text wouldn't normally be used. [Renne Botens]

Moore, David M., and Francis M. Dwyer, eds. Visual literacy: a spectrum of visual learning. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications, 1994.

Platt, Joan M. Visual literacy. Washington, DC: National Education Association, 1975.

Platt provides a detailed description of visual literacy and its place in the classroom: "The main objective of visual literacy is to give new dimensions ot each individual's perception and expression, not to substitute one rigidly [defined] dimension for another" (25). Published in 1975, it focuses on the technology of the photograph and film.

Reinking, David, ed. Handbook of literacy and technology: transformations in a post-typographic world. Mahwah, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates, 1998.

Rose, Gillian. Visual methodologies: an introduction to the interpretation of visual materials. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2001.

Selber, Stuart A. Computers and Technical Communication: Pedagogical and Programmatic Perspectives. Greenwich, CT: Ablex Pub. Corp., 1997.

This book describes the use of technology in the classroom and is helpful in defining hypertext and what components are part of hypertext. It discusses how to make use of people's visual literacy in designing multimedia. This book is a valuable tool for distance-learning and/or technolgoy teachers at the secondary or post-secondary level, with emphasis on designing computer classrooms and integrating collaborative technology.

---. Multiliteracies for a Digital Age. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2004.

Sinatra, Richard. Visual literacy connections to thinking, reading, and writing. Springfield, IL: C.C. Thomas, 1986.

Stafford, Barbara Maria. Artful science: enlightenment, entertainment, and the eclipse of visual education. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1994.

Stafford provides a detailed history of the image and how it has been used from the perspective of an art historian.

---. Good looking : essays on the virtue of images. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996

In Stafford's view, images ar ethe most effective and fascinating form for conveying and configuring ideas.

Stephens, Mitchell. The rise of the image, the fall of the word. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Stephens proposes that there will be a transformation of image-work (primarily video-making) such that images will be able to show more than texts are able to convey while still activating the imagination of the viewer. Stephens believes that books will be replaced by "complex media," involving video and Internet technologies.

Stephenson, John, ed. Teaching and Learning Online: New Peagogies for New Technologies. London: Kogan Page, 2001.

Discussing distance learning needs, this collection of essays reviews the use and often misuse of technology and the Internet in classrooms while still insisting that online learning can be effective.

Tufte, Edward R. Envisioning information. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press, 1990.

Tufte defines and reviews cognitive art (charts, diagrams, graphs, tables, maps, etc.) in order to shed light on the most constructive, informative structure for not just conveying but thinking about statistical data and other pertinent information. Tufte explores the idea of "escaping flatland" (two-dimensional space) through cognitve art that attempts three-dimensionality.

---. The visual display of quantitative information. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press, 1983.

---. Visual explanations: images and quantities, evidence and narrative. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press, 1997.

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