Vladimir Propp, Morphology of the Folktale

III. THE FUNCTIONS OF DRAMATIS PERSONAE
In this chapter we shall enumerate the functions of the drama­tis personae in the order dictated by the folktale itself. For each function we are given: 1) a brief summary of its essence, 2) an abbreviated definition in one word, and 3) its conventional sign. (The introduction of signs eventually shall permit
a schematic comparison of the structure of various folktales.) Then follow examples. These examples far from exhaust our ma­terial. I cite them only as models. They are distributed into certain groups. These groups are in relation to the definition as "species" to "genus." The basic task is clearly the extraction of "genera." An examination of species cannot be included in the problems of general morphology. Species can be further subdivided into "varieties." Here we have the beginning of systematization.   'The arrangement to be given later will not pursue similar goals. The citation of examples should only illustrate the pre­sence of the function as a certain generic unit. As was already mentioned, all functions are bound up within one consecutive story. The groups of functions to be given here form a morphological basis for the study of fairy tales in general.
A folktale usually begins with some sort of initial situation. The members of a family are enumerated, or else the future hero is introduced (i.e., a soldier) in some manner; either his name is revealed or his status is indicated. Although this situation does not, in itself, constitute a function, it nevertheless is an important morphological element. The species of folktale beginnings can be examined only at the end of the present work. We shall designate this element as the "initial situation," giving it the sign a.
Functions follow the initial situation:

I. One of the members of a family is absent from home. (Definition: absence.)

    1. The person absent can be a member of the older generation. Parents leave for work (64). "The prince had far to travel, to abandon his wife in foreign lands" (148). "The merchant goes away, as to foreign lands" (115). Usual forms of absenting oneself in folktales: going to work, going to the forest, departing in order to trade, leaving for war, "on business."
      2. An intensified form of absence is represented by the death of parents ((12 ).
      3. Sometimes members of the younger generation absent themselves (R3 ). They ride (or walk) to some­one as guests (57); they leave to go fishing (62);
      they go for a walk (77); they go out to gather ber­ries (137).
    2. An interdiction is addressed to the hero. (Definition: interdiction.)
      1. "You dare not look in this pantry" (94). "Take care of your brother, do not venture forth from the courtyard" (64). "If Baba Jaga comes, say nothing, and be silent" (61). "Often did the prince try to persuade her and order her not to leave the high tower" (148). Interdiction not to go out is often given a forceful note, or is replaced by putting children in a tower (117). Sometimes, on the contrary, an interdiction is evidenced in a weaker form, as a request or bit of advice: a mother warns her son not to go out fishing, "you're still a youngster," etc. (62). The folktale generally begins with an absence, and then proceeds with the interdiction. The sequence of events, of course, ac­tually-Turis in the reverse. Interdictions can also be made without being connected with an absence: "do not pick the apples" (127); "do not pickup the golden feather" (103); "do not open the drawer"; "do not kiss the sisters" (125).
      2. An interdiction in the form of an address to someone is either an injunction or a proposal (y2). "Bring breakfast out into the field" (74)." "Take your brother with you to the woods" (137).

    Here, for the sake of a better understanding of the matter at hand, a small digression may perhaps be made. The folktale further presents a sudden (yet not without a traceable form of preparation) emergence of misfortune. In connection with this, the initial situation gives a description of particular, often plainly stated prosperity to follow. For example, the king has a wonderful garden in which golden apples grow, and so on. A particular form is agrarian prosperity: a peasant and his sons achieve a wonderful haying. One often encounters the description of sowing with excellent shoots. This prosperity naturally serves as a contrasting background, since misfortune already hovers invisibly over the heads of the happy family. From this situation stems the interdiction, for example, not to go out into the street, and so forth. The very absence of the parents prepares for the oncoming misfortune, creating the opportune moment for its emer­gence. The children, either upon the departure of parents or after their death, are left on their own. An order often plays the role of interdiction. If the children are urged to go out into the field or in the forest, the fulfillment of this injunction produces the same consequences as an interdiction not to go to the forest or out into the field.

II. The interdiction is violated (Definition: violation.)
The forms of violation correspond to the forms of interdiction. Functions II and III form a twin element. The second half can sometimes exist without the first (the princesses go into the garden [3]; they are late in returning home). Here the interdiction of tardiness is omitted. A fulfilled injunction corresponds, as demonstrated, to a violated prohibition.

At this point a new personage, who perhaps can be termed the villain, enters the folktale. His role is that of the disturber of the peace of a happy family, the cause of some form of misfor­tune or harm. The villain (s) may be a dragon, a devil, bandits, a witch, or a stepmother, etc. (the question of how new personages, in general, enter into the scheme of action of a folktale will be discussed in a special chapter). Here, the villain enters the scene. He comes on foot, sneaks up on, or flies down upon a par­ticular setting, etc., and begins the performance of his role.


IV. The villain makes an attempt at reconnaissance. (Definition: reconnaissance.)

  1. The reconnaissance has as its aim the obtaining of information about, for example, where certain chil­dren reside, the location of precious objects, etc.
    (E1). Examples: a bear: "Who will tell me what has become of the king's children? Where did the children disappear?" (117); an employee: "Where do you get these precious stones?" (11-1); a priest inquires: "How were you able to make such a quick recovery?" (114); a princess: "Tell me, Ivan, the merchant's son, wherein does your wis­dom lie?" (120); "With what does the bitch live?" Jagiga thinks. She sends One-Eye, Two-Eye, and Three-Eye to find out (56).
  2. An invented form of reconnaissance is evidenced in the questioning by the villain of his intended victim (52). "Where is your death, Kozej?" (93). "What a swift steed you have !   Might you not get an­other somewhere that could outrun yours?" (95).
  3. In separate instances one encounters forms of re­connaissance by means of other personages (3 ).

V. The villain receives information about his victim. (Definition: delivery.)

  1. The villain spontaneously receives an answer to his question.  The chisel answers the bear: "Take me out into the courtyard and throw me down upon the ground; there where I stick into the ground will you also find the hive." The merchant's wife responds to the question about the precious stones, put to her by the employee, in the following manner: "Oh, may the hen lay eggs for us," etc. Once again we are confronted with twin functions. They often occur in the form of a dialogue. The dialogue between the stepmother and the mirror belongs to this category. Although she does not directly, here, question her stepdaughter, the mir­ror answers her: "There is no doubt of your beauty; and you have a stepdaughter, living with knights in the deep forest, and, truly, she is even more beautiful than you." As in similar in­stances, the second half of a twin function can ex­istwithout the first. In these cases the delivery
    of information takes the form of an unwary, care­less act: a mother calls her son home in a loud voice and thereby betrays his presence to a witch (62). An old man receives a marvelous bag; he gives the godmother a treat from the bag and` thereby gives away the secret of his talisman to her (109).
  2. Inverse or other forms of information gathering evoke corresponding answers. Ko~~_ej reveals the secret of his death (93), the secret of the swift
    steed (94), and so forth.

VI. The villain attempts to deceive his victim in order to take possession of him or of his belongings. (Definition: fraud.)
The villain, first of all, assumes a disguise. A dragon turns into a golden goat (97); or a handsome youth (118); a witch pretends to be a "sweet old lady" (148) and imitates the voice of the mother (62); a priest dresses himself in a goat's hide (144); a thief pretends to be a beggar (111). Then follows the function itself.

  1. The villain makes an attempt at persuasion (6l). The witch tries to have a ring accepted (65); the witch suggests the taking of a steam bath (109), the removal of clothes (147), and the bathing in a pond (148); the beggar asks alms (111).
  2. The villain proceeds to act by the direct applica­tion of magical means (12). The stepmother gives a sleeping potion to her stepchild (128). She sticks
    a magic pin into his clothing (128).
  3. The villain employs other means of deception or coercion (3). Evil sisters place knives and spikes around a window through which Finist is supposed
    to fly (129). A dragon rearranges the wood shav­ings that are supposed to show a young girl the way to her brothers (74).

VII. The victim submits to deception and thereby unwit­tingly helps his enemy. (Definition: complicity.)

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1. The hero agrees to all of the villain's persuasions (i.e., takes the ring, goes to steambathe, etc.). One notes that interdictions are always broken and deceitful proposals, conversely, are always ac­cepted and fulfilled (01).
2-3. The hero mechanically reacts to the employment of magical or other means (i.e., falls asleep, wounds himself, etc.). It is possible to observe that this function can also exist separately. No one lulls the hero to sleep: he suddenly falls asleep by himself in order, of course, to facilitate the villain's dirty work (0Z -03 ).
The deceitful agreement constitutes a special form of deceit­ful proposal and assent ("Give away that which you do not know you have in your house."). Assent in these instances is compelled, the villain taking advantage of some difficult situation in which his vic­tim is caught: a scattered flock, extreme proverty, etc. The vil­lain, on another occasion, induces these very same difficulties for the hero: the bear seizes the king by the beard (117). This element may be defined as "preliminary misfortune." (Designation: differentiating between this and other forms of deception.)

 

VIII. The villain causes harm or injury to one member of
a family. (Definition: villainy. Designation: A.)
This function is exceptionally important, since, by means of it, the actual_ movement of the folktale is created. Absence, the 'creaking of an interdiction, delivery, the success of a deceit, all prepare the way for this function, create its possibility of occur­rence, or else simply facilitate its happening. Therefore, the first seven functions may be regarded as the preparatory section of the folktale, whereas the plot is begun by an act of villainy. The forms of villainy are exceedingly varied.    ,
1. The villain abducts a person (AL). A dragon kid­naps the king's daughter (72), the daughter of a peasant (74); a witch kidnaps a boy (62); older brothers abduct the bride of a younger brother (102).
Z. The villain abducts or steals a magical agent (AZ). The "uncomely chap" steals a magic coffer (111); the princess steals a magic shirt (120); the little peasant makes off with a magic steed.
Za. The forcible seizure of a magical helper creates a special subclass of this form (All). The step­mother orders the killing of the miraculous cow (56, 57). The employee orders the slaying of a ma­gic duck or chicken (114, 115).
The villain plunders or spoils the crops (A3 ). The mare eats up the haystack (60). The bear steals the oats (82). The crane steals the peas (108).
4. The villain steals the daylight (A4). (This occurs only once [75] .)
5. The villain performs abduction in other forms (AS ) . The object of a theft fluctuates to an enormous de­gree, and there is really no necessity for register­ing all of its many forms. The object of a theft, as will be demonstrated later on, does not influence the process of action. It would be much more logi­cally correct to consider all thievery, generally,
as one form of villainy, and all constituent forms of thievery (subdivided according to their objects and objectives) not as classes, but as subclasses. Nevertheless, it is technically more useful to iso­late several of its most important forms while, on the other hand, generalizing about those remaining. Examples: the fire bird steals the golden apples (102); the burrowing beast each night eats animals

Morphology of the Folktale
from the king's menagerie (73); the general steals the king's (nonmagical) sword (145), and so forth. 6. The villain causes bodily injury (A6). The servant girl cuts out the eyes of her mistress (70). The princess chops off Katoma's legs (116). It is-in­teresti~j4 llote that these forms (from a morpho­lo~ical point off view), are also forms of stealing. The eyes, for example, are placed by the servant girl in a pocket and are carried away, in the same manner as other stolen objects when put in their place. This is also true in the case of a heart that has been torn out of someone's breast.
7. The villain effects a sudden disappearance (A7). Usually this disappearance is the result of the ap­plication of bewitching or magical means; the step­mother lulls her stepson to sleep-his bride dis­appears forever (128). Sisters place knives and needles in the window through which Finist is sup­posed to fly-he wounds his wings and disappears forever (129). A wife flies away from her hus­band forever upon a magic carpet (113). Folktale No. 150 demonstrates an interesting form. There, disappearance is effected by the hero himself: he sets fire to the jacket of his bewitched wife, and she disappears forever. A special occurrence in folktale No. 125 might, conditionally, be placed in the same class: a bewitched man's kiss causes his bride's total loss of memory. In this case the victim is the bride, who loses her betrothed (Avii),
8. The villain demands or tricks his victim (A8). Usually this form constitutes the result of a deceit­ful agreement. The kipg of the sea demands his
son, who leaves his house (125).
9. The villain expels someone (A9): The stepmother drives her daughter out (52); the priest expels his grandson (82).
10. The villain orders someone to be thrown into the sea (A1°). The king places his daughter and son­in-law in a barrel and orders the barrel to be
thrown into the sea (100). Parents launch a small boat, carrying their sleeping son, into the sea (138). 11. The villain casts a spell upon someone or some­thing (All). At this point one must take note of the fact that the villain often causes two or three harm­ful-acts at once. There are forms which rarely are encountered independently and which show a marked propensity for uniting with other forms. The casting of spells belongs to this group. For example: a wife turns her husband into a mare
and then drives him out (i.e., A91; 139); the step­mother turns her stepdaughter into a lynx and proceeds to drive her out (149). Even in instances when a bride is changed into a duck and flies away, we actually are presented with a case of expul­sion, although, as such, it is not expressly stated (147, 148).
12. The villain effects a substitution (A12). This form also is mostly concommitant. The nursemaid changes the bride into a duckling and substitutes
her own daughter in the bride's place (A,,. ; 70 ). The maid blinds the king's bride and pretends to be the bride.
13. The villain orders a _murder to be committed (A13).            This form._ is,_ in actualityintensified .._variation of expWsion: the stepmother orders a servant to kill her stepdaughter while they are out walking (121). The princess orders her servants
to take her husband away into the forest and, there, to kill him (113). It is usual, in such cases, that the heart and liver of the victim be taken after the murder has taken place.
14. The villain commits murder (A14). This form is usually a component of other kinds of villainous acts or crimes and serves to intensify them: the princess steals her husband's magic shirt and then proceeds to murder him (i.e.,A14; 120). Elder brothers kill a younger brother and steal his bride (i.e., A14;102). The sister steals her brother's berries and then kills him (137).
15. The villain incarcerates, imprisons (A15 ).    The princess imprisons Ivan in a dungeon (107). The king of the sea jails Semen as a prisoner (142).
16. The villain threatens forcible matrimony (A16). The dragon demands the princess as his wife (68). 16a. The same form among relatives (Axvi). The brother demands his sister for a wife (65).
17. The villain makes a threat of cannibalism (A17). The dragon demands the princess as his dinner (104). The dragon ate all the people in the village and threatens the last living person, a peasant, with the same fate (85).
17a. The same form among relatives (Axvii). The sis­ter desires to devour her brother (50). The villain torments at night (A1a). A dragon (113) and a devil (66) torment the princess at night; a
witch flies to a maiden at night and sucks at her breast.
19. The villain declares war (A19). The neighboring king declares war (96); similarly, a dragon brings a kingdom to ruin (77).
With this, the forms of villainy are exhausted within the con­fines of the selected material. However, far from all folktales begin with an affliction or misfortune. \There are, as well, other beginnings which often present the same development as folktales which begin with A. On examining this phenomenon, we will ob­.s,erve that these folktales contain a certain situation of insuffi­ciency, or lack, which provokes quests analogous to those in the case of villainy. We conclude from this that lack can be con­sjdered as the morphological equivalent of, for example, abduction. Let us consider the following cases: the princess steals Ivan's talisman. The result of this abduction is that Ivan lacks the talis­man. And so we see that a_folktale, in omitting villainy, very of­ten begins directly with a lack: Ivan desires to have a magical sabre or a magical steed, etc. Insufficiency, just as abduction, defines- the following,moment of initial plot:       Ivan sets out on a quest. The same may be said in reference to the abducted bride, etc. In the first instance, a certain act is given, the result of which creates an insufficiency and provokes a quest; in the sec­ond instance a ready-made insufficiency is presented which also provokes a quest. _In the first instance, a lack is created from without; in the second it is realized from within.
We realize fully that the terms "insufficiency" and "lack" are not wholly satisfactory. But there are no words in the Russian language with which the given concept may be expressed com­pletely and exactly. The word "shortage" sounds better, but it bears a special meaning which is inappropriate for the given concept. This insufficiency can be compared to the zero which, in a series of figures, amounts to a definite value. The given mo­ment may be fixed in the following manner:
VIIIa. One member of a family lacks something, he desires to have something. (Definition:lack. Designation:    a. ) These instances lend themselves to a grouping only with dif­ficulty. It would be possible to break them down according to the forms of the recognition of lack (see pages 66-67); but here it is possible to limit oneself to a distribution according to the objects lacking. It is possible to register the following forms: 1) lack
of a bride (or of a friend, generally a human being). Thislackis some­times delineated very strongly (the hero intends to search for a bride), and sometimes it is not even mentioned verbally. The bachelor hero sets out to find a bride and thereby a beginning is given to the moment of the action ( al).                    2) A magical agent is needed, for example, apples, water, horses, sabres, etc. (a2). z
3) Wonders are lacking (without magical power), as, the fire bird, ducks with golden feathers, a wonder-of-wonders, etc. (a3). 4) a specific form: the magical egg containing Kog~!ej's death (and the love of the princess) is lacking (a4 ).                5) Rationalized forms, money, the means of existence, are insufficient, etc. (ca s ). We note that similar beginnings from daily living sometimes de­velop quite fantastically; 6) various other forms (a6) .
The form of the folktale is not determined by the object of an abduction, nor by what is lacking. In consequence, there is no ne­cessity for systematizing all instances for the sake of general morphological goals. One can limit oneself to the important ones, while those remaining may be generalized.
Here the following problem necessarily arises: far from all folktales begin either with misfortune or with the beginning just described. The tale of Emel the fool begins with the fool's catch­ing a pike, not with a villainy. In comparing a large number of folktales, it becomes apparent, however, that the elements pecu­liar to the middle of the folktale are sometimes transferred to the beginning, in the manner mentioned here. The catching and pitying of an animal is a typical middle element, as we shall observe later on. Generally, elements A or a are required for each folktale of the class being studied. Other forms of initial plot do not exist.
IX. Misfortune or shortage is made known: the hero is either approached with a request and responds to it of his own accord, or is commanded and dispatched,
(Definition: mediation, the connective [conjunctive] moment. Designation: B.)
This function brings the hero into play. Under the closest analysis, this function may be subdivided into a number of compo­nents, but for our purposes this is not mandatory. The folktale
hero may be one of two types: 1) if a young girl is kidnapped, and her father disappears beyond the horizon (both of the young girl in question and of the reader), and if Ivan goes off in search of her, then the hero of the tale is Ivan (and not the kidnapped girl). Heroes of this type may be termed "seekers." 2) If a young girl or boy is kidnapped or driven out, and the thread of the narrative is linked to his or her fate and not to those who remain behind,
then the hero of the tale is, in effect, the kidnapped boy or young girl.       Heroes of this variety may be called "victim- heroes."3 Seekers are absent from such tales. The problem of whether tales develop in the same manner when either type of hero is present will be treated further on. Suffice it to say, for the moment, that there is absolutely no instance, in our material, inwhich the narra­tive follows both seekers and victim-heroes in the same tale (cf. "Ruslan and Ludmila"). The topic of mediation is present in both cases. The meaning of this topic lies in the fact that it constitutes the signal for the hero's departure from home.
1. A call for help is given (with the resultant dis­patch of the hero) (B1). The call usually comes from the king and is accompanied by promises.
2. The hero is immediately dispatched (B?). Dis­patch is presented either in the form of a com­niand or a request. In the former instance, it is often coupled with threats; in the latter case, with promises. Sometimes, as well, both threats and promises are given.
3. The hero departs from home (B3). In this instance the initiative for departure is often taken by the hero himself, apart from a sender or dispatcher. Parents bestow their blessing. The hero some­times does not explain his genuine aims for leav­ing: he may, for example, ask for permission to go out walking, while, actually, intending to set off for a fight.
4. Misfortune is announced (B4). A mother tells her son about the abduction of her daughter that took place before his birth. The son sets out in search of his sister, without having been asked to do so by his mother (74). More often, however, the story of a particular misfortune does not come from parents but, rather, from various old women or passers-by, etc.
These four preceding forms are all attributed to seeker-he­roes. The forms following are directly in relation to the victim­hero type. ;The structure of the folktale makes it necessary for
the hero to home for one reason or another. If this is not accomplished by means of some form of villainy, then the connec­tive moment is employed to this end."
5. The banished hero is taken away from home (B5):
The father leads his daughter, banished by her stepmother, into the forest. This form is interest­ing in a number of ways. Logically, the father's action is not necessary. The daughter could, her­self, go to the forest. But the folktale insists upon parent-senders in the connective moment. It is possible to show that the form in question is a sec­ondary formation; but this does not enter into the attempt of a general morphology. One must, as well, take note of the fact that abduction also adapts itself in relation to the princess, threatened by
the dragon. In such cases, she is transported to
the seashore. Yr,t, concurrently, a call for rescue       \ ,
is issued.  The process of action is determined by the call and not by the abduction to the seashore. This explains why abduction, in these instances, cannot be attributed to the connective moment.
6. The hero condemned to death is secretly freed (B6 ). A cook or an archer spares the young girl (or boy), frees her, and instead of killing her, slays an animal in order to be able to exhibit a heart and a liver as proof of the murder (121, 114). Moment B is defined as the factor provoking the setting out of the hero from home. If a dispatch presents the necessity for setting out, then, in this case, the possibility of departure is granted. The first instance is characteristic of the seeker-hero. The second applies to the victim-hero.
7. A lament is sung (B7). This form is specifically for a murdered person (and is sung by the remain­ing kin, by a brother, etc.), for one bewitched and banished, or for someone who has been replaced by a different person. Misfortune, by means of a lament, becomes known and calls forth counterac­tion.
X. The seeker agrees to or decides upon counteraction. (Definition: beginning counteraction. Designation: C.)
This moment is characterized in such words, for instance, as the following: "Permit us to go in search of your daughters, the princesses." In certain cases this moment is not expressed in words; but, naturally, a volitional decision precedes the search. This moment is characteristic only of those folktales in which the hero is a seeker. Banished, vanquished, bewitched, and substituted heroes demonstrate no volitional aspiration toward freedom, and in such cases this element of decision or agreement is lacking. The hero leaves home. (Definition: departure. Des­ignation:   t . )
Departure, here, denotes something different from the tempo­rary absence element, designated by (3. The departures of seeker­heroes and victim-heroes are also various. The former have "the search" as their goal; the latter travel along a route in which a search is not involved, which, instead, prepares a series of ad­ventures for them. It is necessary to keep the following in mind: if a young girl is abducted and a seeker goes in pursuit of her, then two characters have left home. Yet the route followed by the story and on which action is developed is actually the route of the seeker. If, for example, a girl is driven out and no seeker is pre­sent in a given tale, then the narrative is developed along the route of the victim-hero. The sign t designates the route of the hero, regardless of type. In several folktales a special transference of the hero is completely absent. The entire flow of action takes place in one location. Sometimes, quite to the contrary, departure is intensified to the point of assuming the character of flight.
i he elements ABC t present the inaugurations of the plot on which the course of action develops further.
At this juncture a new character enters the folktale: this per­sonage might be termed the "donor, " or, more precisely, the pro­vider. Usually he is encountered accidentally, in the forest, along the roadway, etc. (cf. Chapter VI, forms of appearance of folktale characters). It is from him that the seeker-hero obtains some means (usually magical) to be used in the eventual liquidation of misfortune. Prior to this, however, the hero experiences a num­ber of different adventures which all lead to the moment when he eventually obtains a magical agent.
XII. The hero is tested, interrogated, attacked, etc. in preparation for receiving either a magical agent or helper. (Definition: the first function of the donor. Designation: D.)
1. The donor tests the hero (Dl). A witch gives a girl household chores to tend to (58). The forest knights propose that the hero serve them for three years (123). The hero is to serve three years in the service of a merchant (66). The hero is sup­posed to serve as a ferryman for three years, without remuneration (71). The hero must listen to the playing of the gusla without falling asleep (123). The apple tree, the river, and the stove offer a very simple meal (64). A witch proposes
an evening in bed with her daughter (104). A dra­gon suggests the raising of a heavy stone (71). (The former request is often written on the stone itself, and brothers, on finding it, attempt to raise it of their own accord.) A witch proposes the guarding of a herd of mares (94), and so forth.
Z. The donor greets and interrogates the hero (DZ ). This form may be considered as a weakened method of testing. Greeting and interrogation is, of course, present, as well, in the forms mentioned above; but in these cases the elements did not have the char - acter of a test but, rather, preceded same. In the examples to follow, direct testing is absent, and interrogation assumes the character of testing in­directly. If the hero answers rudely he receives nothing, but if he responds politely he is rewarded with a steed, a sabre, and so on.
3. A dying or deceased person's request for the ren­dering of a service or favor (D 3 ).       This form some­times takes on the character of a trial. For ex­ample, a cow asks the following: "Eat not of my meat, but gather up my bones. Tie them in a ker­chief and bury them in the garden. Forget me not, and water them each morning" (56). A similar re­quest is made by the ox in tale No. 117. Another type of last wish is evident in tale No. 105. Here, a dying father instructs his sons to spend three nights beside his grave.
4. A prisoner asks for his freedom (D4 ). The brazen little peasant is held captive and asks to be freed (68). A devil sits in a tower as a prisoner; he begs a soldier to free him (130). A jug fished out of water begs to be broken, i.e., the spirit imprisoned within the jug asks for its liberty (114).
4. The same as the preceding, stipulating, here, the preliminary imprisonment of the donor (*D4 ) . If, for example, as in tale No. 67, a wood goblin is caught and confined, the deed of capture and im­prisonment cannot be considered an independent function: it merely sets the stage for the subse­quent request of the captive.
5. The hero is approached with a request for mercy (DS ).  This form might be considered as a sub­class of the preceding class (4). It occurs either before capture or while the hero takes aim at a particular animal with the intention of killing it. Examples: the hero catches a pike who begs him to let her go (100b); the hero aims at animals
who beg to be spared (93).
6. Disputants request a division of property (D6). Two giants ask that a crutch and a broom be di­vided between them ( 107).           Disputants do not always voice their request: the hero often proposes a division of some sort on his own initiative (d6). Beasts are incapable of dividing carrion; the hero apportions it for them (97).
7. Other requests (D7). Strictly speaking, requests constitute an independent class and their individual types, subclasses; but, in order to avoid an unwieldy system of designation, it is possible, on certain con­ditions, to consider all such varieties as classes
in themselves. :-saving defined the basic forms in question, one can generalize about those remain­ing: Mice ask to be fed (58); a thief asks the robbed person to carry the stolen goods for him (131). Further, a happening takes place which can be im­mediately divided into two classes: A fox is caught; it begs, "Don't kill me (a request for mercy, D5), cook a chicken with a little butter, it's fatter than me" (second request, D7). And, since imprison­ment preceded this incide t, the designation for the complete happening is =` D .  Here is an example
of another occurrence of still a different charac­ter, though also preceded by a suppliant's either being threatened with, or caught up in, a helpless situation: the hero steals the clothes of a lady bather who begs him to return them (131). Some­times a helpless situation occurs without the pro­nouncement of a request (fledglings become soaked in the rain, children torment a cat). The hero is presented, on these occasions, with the possibility of rendering assistance. Objectively, this amounts to a test, although subjectively the hero does not sense it per se (d7).
8. A hostile creature attempts to destroy the hero
(De). A witch tries to place the hero in an oven (62). A witch attempts to behead the hero during the night (60). A host attempts to feed his guests to rats at night (122).             A magician tries to exhaust the hero, leaving him alone on a mountain (136).
9. A hostile creature joins in combat with the hero (D9 ). A witch fights with the hero, for example. Combat of one sort or another, taking place be­tween the hero and various inhabitants of the for­est in a forest hut, is a frequently recurring element. Combat, here, has the character of an
out and out brawl.
10. The hero is shown a magical agent which is offered as an exchange (D1°). A robber shows a cudgel (122); an old man reveals a sword (151). They pro­pose these things as an exchange.
XIII. The hero reacts to the actions of the future donor. (Definition: the hero's reaction. Designation: E.) In the majority of instances, the reaction of the hero is either clearly positive or clearly negative.
1. The hero sustains (or does not sustain) an ordeal (E1).
2. The hero answers (or does not answer) a greeting (E z ).
3. He performs a favor (or does not) for a dead per­son (E 3 ).
4. He frees a captive (E4).
5. He shows mercy to a suppliant (E5).
6. He apportions something between disputants and reconciles them (E6 ). The request of disputants (or simply an argument with a stated request) more often evokes a different reaction. The hero de­ceives the disputants into running after an arrow which he shoots into the distance; and, in the mean­time, he escapes with the disputed objects (Evi).
7. The hero performs other forms of services, favors (E7). Sometimes these services are performed
in response to requests; sometimes, as well, they are done purely through the generosity of the hero (a young girl feeds passing beggars [65]). A spe­cial subclass might be made by forms of services of a religious nature: the hero lights incense to
the glory of God. To this group one instance of a prayer might also be relegated (66).
8. The hero saves himself from an attempt on his life by employing the same tactics used by his ad­versary (E$). He puts the witch in the stove, order­ing her to show how to climb in (62). The heroes change clothes with the daughters of the witch in secret; she proceeds to kill them instead of the heroes (60). The magician himself remains on the mountain where he wanted to abandon the hero (136).
9. The hero vanquishes (or does not vanquish) this adversary (E9 ). The hero agrees to an exchange but immediately employs the magic power of the object exchanged against the barterer (E1°). An old man offers to
trade his magic sword to a cossack for a magic cask. The cossack agrees to the exchange, where­upon he orders the sword to cut off the old man's head while he, in the meanwhile, retrieves his cask (151).
XIV. A magical agent at the disposal of the hero. (Defini­tion: the provision, receipt of a magical agent. Desig­nation: F.)
The following things are capable of serving as magical agents: 1) animals (a horse, an eagle, etc.); 2) objects out of which helpers appear (a fire kindler containing a steed, a ring containing young
men, etc.); 3) objects possessing a magical property such as, cud­gels, swords, gusla, balls, and so forth; ')qualities or capacities which are directly given, such as, the power of transformation into ani­inals forms, etc. All of these objects of transmission we shall conditionally term magical agents.' The forms by which they are transmitted are the following:
1. The agent is directly transferred (Fl). Similar acts of transference often have the character of a reward: an old man presents a horse as a gift; forest animals offer their offspring, etc. Quite of­ten the hero, instead of receiving a certain animal directly for his own use, obtains the power of turn­ing himself into it at will (cf. Chapter VI). Several folktales end on the note of a reward. In these in­stances the gift amounts to something of innate material value and not a magical agent (f 1) .    If a hero's reaction is negative, then the transference is not actuated (F neg.), or some form of fierce retribution can follow as a result of refusal. In cases such as these the hero may be devoured, frozen, may have his back injured, or may be thrown under a stone, etc (F contr.).
2. The agent is made known (F Z).    An old woman shows the hero an oak tree under which lies a fly­ing ship (83). An old man points out a peasant
from whom a magic steed may be obtained (78). 3. The agent is prepared (F3). "The magician went out on the shore, drew a boat in the sand and said: `Well, brothers, do you see this boat?' 'We do see it.' `Then get into it."' (78).
4. The agent is sold, purchased (F'). The hero buys a magic hen (114); he buys a magic dog and cat
(112), etc. The intermediate form between pur­chase and preparation is "preparation on order": The hero orders a chain to be made by a black­smith, for example (60). (The designation for this 4
instance:  F3 .)
5. The agent falls into the hands of the hero by chance (is found by him) (FS ).   Ivan sees a horse in the field and proceeds to mount him (73); he comes upon a tree bearing magic apples (113).
6. The agent appears independently, of its own accord (F6 ).   A staircase suddenly appears, leading up a mountain side (93). Agents sprouting out of the ground constitutes a special form of independent appearance (Fvi), by which magical bushes (56, 57), branches, dogs and horses (117), as well as dwarfs alike, make themselves available.
7. The agent is drunk or eaten (F7). This is not, strictly speaking, a form of transference, although it may be coordinated, conditionally, with such in­stances. Examples: three beverages provide the drinker with unusual strength (68); the eating of a bird's entrails endows the hero with various magi­cal capacities (114).
8. The agent is stolen (F8). The hero steals a horse from a witch (94); he steals the objects of the dis­putants' quarrel (115). The application of magical agents on the person who exchanged them as a bar­ter, and the seizing of given objects also consti­tute forms of stealing.
9. Various characters place themselves at the dis­posal of the hero (F9). An animal, for example, may either present its offspring or offer itself in the service of the hero, making, as it were, a pre­sent of itself.       Compare the following incident: a steed does not always present himself directly, or by means of a kindling tool. Sometimes the do­nor informs the hero simply of anincantatory for­mula with which the hero may invoke the steed to appear. In this instance, Ivan is not actually given anything: he only receives the right to a helper. Another instance of this type is present when the donor offers Ivan the right to make use of him:
the pike informs Ivan of a formula by which he may call on the pike for help ("Say only this pike-com­mand...." etc). If, finally, no formula is mentioned and, instead, the animal simply says, "Sometime I'll prove useful, " then, at that moment, the hero is assured of the aid of a magical agent in the form of the animal itself. Later on it will become Ivan's helper (f9). It often happens that various magical
creatures appear without warning, are met on a journey, offering their services and eventually be­coming helpers (Fg). Mostly all of these are he­roes either with extraordinary attributes, or in control of various magical means ~ (Obedalo, Opivalo, Moroz-Treskun).
Here, before continuing with the further registration of func­tions, the following question should be taken into consideration: in what combination does one encounter the types contained in the elements D (preparation of transmission), and F (transmission it­self)?5 One need only state that, in the face of a negative reaction on the part of the hero, one encounters F neg. (the transmission ;does not take place), or F contr. (the unfortunate hero is punished). Under the condition of the hero's positive reaction, one encounters the combinations shown in Figure 1.
One can see from this scheme that the connections are excep­tionally varied and that, in general, a wide range of substitution of certain variations for others is plausibly traceable. Yet if one ex­amines this scheme with care, one immediately becomes aware of the absence of several connections. This absence is in part ex­plained by the insufficiency of material. Nevertheless, certain combinations would not prove logical. Therefore the conclusion to be made is that there exist types of connections. In proceeding according to the designation of types from the forms of transmis­sion of a magical agent. one can isolate two types of connections:
1. The abduction of a magical agent, linked with an attempt to destroy the hero (burn, etc.), with a re­quest for apportionment, and, finally, with a propo­sal for an exchange.
Z. All other forms of transmission and receipt are linked with all other preparatory forms. The re­quest for apportionment belongs to the second type if the division is actually accomplished. If it is not, and the disputants are deceived, then this form belongs to the first type. Further, it is possible to observe that afind,a purchase, and a sudden inde­pendent appearance of a magical agent or help are mostly encountered without the slightest prepara­tion. These are rudimentary forms. If, however, they are prepared in some manner or another, then they belong to the second rather than to the first type. One might, in connection with these matters, touch on the question of the character of donors. The second type most often presents friendly donors (with the exception of those who surrender a magi­cal agent unwillingly as the result of combat), whereas the first type exhibits villainous (or, at any rate, deceptive) donors. These are not donors in the true sense of the word, but, rather, charac­ters who, against their will, furnish the hero with something. With­in the forms of each type, all combinations are possible and logical, whether actually present or not. In this manner, for example, an exacting or grateful donor is capable of giving, revealing, selling, or preparing an agent, or he may tell the hero how to find the agent, etc. On the other hand, a magical agent in the possession of a deceptive donor can be obtained only through theft, abduction. Therefore, for example, it is not logical if a hero performs a dif­ficult task for a witch and then proceeds to steal a colt from her. This is not, of course, to say that such combinations do not exist; but in these instances the story teller is obliged to motivate fully the heroes' actions. Here is another model of an illogical connec­tion which is clearly motivated: Ivan fights with an old man. Dur­ing the struggle the old man inadvertently permits Ivan to drink some strength giving water. The "inadvertence" of this situation becomes understandable when one compares this incident with those folktales in which a beverage is given to the hero by a friendly or grateful donor. In this light one readily sees that the apparent lack of logic of the story teller is perfectly resolved.
If one were to follow a purely empirical approach, one would be inclined to confirm the possibility of the substitution of all var­ied forms of elements D and F in relation to each other.
Below are several concrete examples of connection:
Type II: D'E'Fl. Jaga instructs the hero to pasture a herd of mares. After completing a second task, the hero receives a steed (95).
DZEZF?. An old man interrogates the hero. He answers rudely and receives nothing. Later, he returns and responds politely, whereupon he receives a horse (9Z).
DIES F1. A dying father requests his sons to spend three nights beside his grave. The youngest son fulfills the request and receives a horse (195).
D3 E3 Fvl.  A young ox asks the king's children to kill him, burn him, and plant his ashes in three beds. The hero does these things. From one bed an apple tree sprouts forth; from the second
a dog; and from the third a steed (118). Brothers find a large stone. "Should it not be moved?" (trial without a tester). The elder brothers cannot manage to move it. The youngest moves it, revealing below it a vault in which there are three horses (77).
This list could be continued ad libitum. It is important only
to note that in similar situations other magical gifts besides horses are presented. The examples given here, which include steeds, were selected for the purpose of more sharply outlining a morpho­logical kinship.
Type I: D6Ev1F8.       Three disputants request the apportion­ment of magical objects. The hero instructs them to chase after one another, and, in the meanwhile, he makes off with the object (s) (a cap, a blanket, boots, etc.).
D8E8F8. Heroes come upon a witch's house. At night she plans to behead them. Instead, they put her daughters in their place and run away, the youngest brother making off with a magic kerchief (61).
D'OE'OF8. Smat-Razum, an invisible spirit, serves the hero. Three merchants offer a little chest (a garden), an axe (a boat), and a horn (an army) in exchange for the spirit. The hero agrees to the barter but later calls his helper back to him.
We observe that the substitution of certain aspects by others, within the confines of each type, is practiced on a large scale. But another question crops up at this point: are not the objects of transmissions in fact linked to particular known forms of trans­mission (i.e., isn't a horse always presented as a gift while a fly­ing carpet is always stolen)? Although our examination pertains solely to functions per se,     it is nevertheless possible to indicate that a norm such as this does not exist. For example, the steed, given as a gift in the majority of cases recorded, is stolen in tale No. 95, whereas the magical handkerchief which is usually stolen is, instead, given to the hero in tale No. 94, as well as in a number of other cases.
Let us return to the enumeration of the functions of dramaris personae. The employment of a magical agent usually follows its receipt by the hero; or, if the agent received is a living creature, it is immediately- placed at the disposal of the hero as a helper. With this the hero outwardly loses all meaning; he himself does nothing while his helper performs all manner of deeds. The mor­pholo i~cal_ significance of the hero is nevertheless very great, since-hisu,intentions create the pivot on which thenarrative. is based. These intentions appear in the form of various commanus ~~hich the hero gives to his helpers. At this point it is possible to ren­der a more exact definition of the hero than what has p_-eceded. The hero of a fairy tale is that character who either directly suf­fers from the action in the initial plot of the villain (resp., senses
=e_              o- th_o aj-ees to liauidate the misfortune o.- shortage of another person. In the process of action, the hero is the person who is supplied with a magical agent (a magical helper), and who makes use of it.
XV. The hero is transferred, reaches, or is led to the whereabouts of an object of search. (Definition: spa­tial translocation between two kingdoms, guidance. Designation: G.)
Generally the object of search is located in another or differ­ent kingdom. This kingdom may lie far beyond the horizon, or either very high above or very deep below the ground. The means of transportation may be identical in most cases; but specific forms exist for great heights and depths.
1. The hero flies through the air (G'): on a steed (104); on a bird (121); in the form of a bird (97); on board a flying ship (78); on a flying carpet (113); on the back of a giant or a spirit (121); in the car­riage of a devil (91), and so forth. Flight on a bird is often accompanied by a detail. Since it is neces­sary to feed the bird, the hero provides himself with an ox for the purpose before the journey.
Z. He travels on the ground or on water (GZ ):        on the back of a horse of wolf (102); on board a ship (138); a handless person carries one legless (116); a cat swims a river on the back of a dog (112).
3. He is led (G3 ). A tiny ball shows the way (129); a fox leads the hero to the princess (98).
4. The route is shown to him (G41. The hedgehog
5. He makes use of stationary means of Communica­tion (G' ). lie climbs a stairway (93); he finds an underground passageway and makes use of it (81); he walks across the back of an enormous pike, as enough across a bridge (93); he descends by means of a strap or line, etc.
6. He walks following bloody tracks (G6 ). The hero defeats the inhabitant of a forest but who runs away, hiding himself under a stone. Following
his tracks the hero finds the way into another king­dom.
With the preceding example we exhaust the forms of trans­ference of t'-,e hero. "Delivery," as a function in itself, is often eliminated: the hero simply walks to some spot or other (i.e., function G amounts to a natural continuation of function  In the latter function, G is not pointed out.
XVI. The hero and the villain join in direct combat. (Defi­nition: struggle. Designation: H.)
This form needs to be distinguished from the struggle (hand to hand skirmish) with a villainous donor. These two forms can be recognized and contrasted according to the effects they pro­duce. If the hero obtains an agent, for the purpose of further seeking, as the result of combat with a villainous character, this would be element D.        We_ would designate as element H. a, situation whereby y_.the" hero would receive, as the result of combat, the very object of quest for which he was dispatched.         -
1. They fight in an open field (H1). Fights with drag­ons or with 1~udo-Juda (68), or, as well, with an enemy army or knight, etc. (122).
2. They engage in a competition (H2). In humorous tales a fight itself often does not occur. After a squabble of some sort (often completely analogous to the squabble that precedes an out and out fight), the hero and the villain engage in a competition. The hero wins, with the help of cleverness: a gypsy puts a dragon to flight by brandishing a piece of cheese as though it were a stone, striking blows, at the same time, with a club, etc. (85).
3. They play at cards (H3 ).   The hero and a dragon (a devil) play at cards (113, 90).
4. Tale No. 50 presents a special form: a dragon proposes the following to the hero: "Let Ivan­Tsarevi~! get on the scales with me; one of the two will outweigh the other." (6)
XVII. The hero is branded. (Definition: branding, marking. Designation: J.)
1. A brand is applied to the body (Jl). The hero re­ceives a wound during the skirmish. The princess awakens him before the fight, brands hint with a knife, making a small mark on his cheek (68); the princess brands the hero on the forehead with a
signet ring (114); she kisses him, leaving a burn­ing star on his forehead.
2. The hero receives a ring or a towel (J- ).    Both forms are joined in the case of a hero's being wounded in battle and subsequently having the wound
bound in the kerchief of either a king or queen. XVIII. The villain is defeated. (Definition: victory. Desig­nation: 1.).
1. The villain is beaten on an open field (IL). 2. He is defeated in a contest (1 Z).
3. He loses at cards (I3).
4. He loses at being weighed (I4).
5. He is killed without a fight (IS ).     The serpent is killed while asleep (81). Zmiulan hides in the hol­low of a tree; he is found and killed (99).
6. He is immediately driven out (I6 ).  The princess, possessed by a devil, places an image around her neck: "The evil power flew away in a puff of smoke" (66).
Victory is also encountered in a negative form. In a case of two or three heroes who have assembled for combat, one of them (a general) hides, while the other is victorious (designation: *h ) XIX. The initial misfortune or lack is liquidated. (Designa­
tion: K.) This function, together with villainy (A), constitutes a pair. The narrative reaches its peak in this function.
1. The object of a search is abducted by means of force or cleverness (K'). Here heroes sometimes employ the same means adopted by villains for the initial abduction. Ivan's steed turns into a beggar who goes asking alms. The princess gives it to him. Ivan hops out of the underbrush; they seize her and carry her away (107).
1a. The object is sometimes attained by two person­ages, one of whom orders the other to perform the actual business of catching or obtaining something (Ki). For example, a horse steps on a crab and orders it to bring him a bridal dress; a cat catches a mouse, then orders it to fetch a little ring (112).
2. The object of search is obtained by several per­sonages at once, through a rapid interchange of individual actions (K2). The distribution of action in this case is created by a series of unsuccessful attempts on the part of the abducted person to escape. The seven Semionov brothers obtain a princess; the thief kidnaps her, and she flies away in the form of a swan; the archer shoots her down, and a third, in the guise of a dog, retrieves her from the water, etc. (84). Similarly, the egg containing Kog~ej's death is stolen by a hare, a duck, and a fish (running, flying, and swimming); a wolf, a raven, and a fish obtain it (93).
3. The object of search is obtained by the help of a lure (K3). This form is, in many instances, quite close in nature to K. The hero lures the princess on board a ship with the aid of golden objects, then he kidnaps her (135). A special subclass might be made out of a decoy in the form of a proposal for an exchange. A blinded girl sews a wonderful crown and sends it to her thief-servant girl. In ex­change for the crown she gives her back her eyes.
4. The obtaining of a sought after thing occurs as the direct result of preceding actions (K4). If, for ex­ample, Ivan kills a dragon and later marries the princess whom he freed by liquidating the dragon, we are not confronted with an example of receipt as a special act, but, rather, as a function which is a sequence in the process of the action. The princess is neither seized nor abducted; but she is, nevertheless, "obtained." She is obtained as a re­sult of a struggle. Quest fulfillment in these cases is a logical element. It may be realized as the re­sult of acts other than personal struggles. Thus Ivan can find a princess as the result of journey­ing, etc .
5. The object of search is obtained instantly through the use of a magical agent (K5). Two young men (appearing from inside a magical book) obtain a golden horned stag in a whirlwind (122).
6. The use of a magical agent overcomes poverty
(K6). A magic duck presents golden eggs (114). The magic tablecloth which sets itself, and the horse who scatters gold both belong here (108). Another form of the self-setting tablecloth appears in the image of a pike: "By the pike command and God's blessing let the table be covered and the dinner ready!" (101).
7. The object of search is hunted (K7). This form is typical for agrarian plunderings. The hero hunts the mare who steals hay (60). He hunts the crane who was eating the beans (109). Enchantment is broken (K8). This form is typical for All (enchantment). The breaking of an enchant­ment or spell takes place either by burning a fur
hide or by means of formulae:    "Be a girl once again! "
9. A slain person revives (K9). A hairpin or a dead tooth appears from a head (118-119). The hero is sprinkled with deadly and life-giving waters.
9a. Like the above instance, with the incidence of one animal effecting another's actions: a wolf catches a raven and tells its mother to bring deadly and life-giving waters (102). This means of revival, preceded by the obtaining of water, may be sin­gled out as a special, subclass (Kix) (7).
10. A captive is freed (K10) . A steed breaks open the doors of a dungeon and frees Ivan (107). This form does not morphologically contain any general impli­cations. For example, just as the freeing of a wood spirit creates the basis for his grateful attitude to­ward the hero, and for the transmission of a magi­cal agent, it also implies the liquidation of an initial misfortune. Tale No. 145 evidences a spe­cial form of liberation: here, the king of the sea always drags his prisoner out onto the shore at midnight. The hero begs the sun to free him. The sun is late on two occasions. On the third occasion "the sun showed forth its rays and the king of the sea no longer could drag him back into bondage."
11. The receipt of an object of search is often accom­plished by means of the same forms present in the receipt of a magical agent (i.e., it is given as a
gift, its location is indicated, it is purchased, etc.). Designation of these occurrences: KF1, direct transmission; KFZ, indication, etc., as in the above mentioned example.
XX. The hero returns. (Definition: return. Designation: A return is generally accomplished by means of the same forms as an arrival. It is, however, impossible to distinguish a special function that follows a return, since returning, in itself, already implies a surmounting of space. This is not always true in the case of a departure. On the one hand, the giving of a magical agent (ahorse, an eagle, etc.)follows the departure, and thereupon either a flight or other forms of travel take place. On the other hand, return takes place immediately, as does arrival, in most instances.    A return often has the character of a flight from someone or something.
XXI. The hero is pursued. (Definition: pursuit, chase. Designation: Pr.)
1. The pursuer flies after the hero (Prl). A dragon chases Ivan (95); a witch flies after a boy (60); geese fly after a girl (64).
2. He demands the guilty person (Pr'). This form is mostly linked with a chase involving actual flight through the air: the father of a dragon dispatches
a flying boat. Calls for the extradition of the guilty one, "Guilty one! " are shouted from the boat (68). 3. He pursues the hero, rapidly transforming himself into various animals, etc. (Pr3). This form, at sev­eral stages, is also connected with flight: a magi_ cian pursues the hero in the forms of a wolf, a pike, a man, and a rooster (140).
4. Pursuers (dragons' wives, etc.) turn into alluring objects and place themselves in the path of the hero (Pr4). "I'll run ahead and make the day hot for
him, and I shall turn myself into a green meadow. In this green meadow, I'll change into a well, and in this well there shall swim a silver goblet.... here they'll be torn asunder like a poppy seed (76). She-dragons change into gardens, pillows, wells, etc. The folktale does not inform us, however, as to how they manage to run ahead of the hero in or­der to set their traps.
5. The pursuer tries to devour the hero (Pr 5) .   A she­dragon changes into a maiden who seduces the hero, whereupon it changes into a lioness bent on
devouring Ivan (92). A dragon mother opens her jaws from heaven to the earth (92).
6. The pursuer attempts to kill the hero (Pr' ). lie tries to strike him on the head with a dead tooth (118).
7. He tries to gnaw through the tree in which the he­ro is sleeping. (Pry).
XXII. The hero is rescued from pursuit. (Definition: res­cue. Designation: Rs.)
1. He is carried away through the air (sometimes he is saved by lightning fast running) (Rsl). The he­ro flies away on a horse (95), on geese (62).
2. The hero runs away, placing obstacles in the path of his pursuer on the way (Rsz). He throws a brush, a comb, a towel, etc. They turn into moun­tains, forests, lakes, etc. Similarly, Vertogor 'Mountain- Turner' and Vertodub 'Oak-Turner' tear down and break up mountains and oak trees, placing them in the path of the she-dragon (50).
3. The hero, while in flight, changes into objects ren­dering him unrecognizable (Rs3). A princess turns herself, as well as the prince, into a well, a ladle,
a church, and a priest (125).
4. The hero hides himself during his flight from the pursuer (Rs4). A river, an apple tree, and a stove conceal a maiden (64).
5. The hero is hidden by blacksmiths (Rss). A drag­on demands the guilty person. Ivan hides himself with blacksmiths who seize the dragon by the
tongue and beat it with their hammers (76).     An incident in tale No. 90 undoubtedly is related to this form: devils are placed in a knapsack by a soldier, are carried to blacksmiths and beaten to death with heavy hammers.
6. The hero saves himself, while in flight, by means of rapid transformations into animals, stones, etc. (Rsb). The hero flees in the form of a horse, a
ruff, a ring, a seed, a falcon, etc. (140). Trans­formation is essential to this form. Flight may sometimes be omitted. (Such forms may be con­sidered as a special subclass: a maiden is killed, and a garden springs forth from her remains. When the garden is cut down, it turns to stone, etc. [70] .)
7. He avoids the temptations of transformed she-dragons (Rs 7).          Ivan cuts the garden, the well, and so forth, from which blood flows forth (77).
8. He avoids being devoured (Rs8) : Ivan jumps his horse over the she-dragon's jaws, recognizes the lioness as the she-dragon, and thereupon he kills her (92).
9. He avoids an attempt on his life (Rs9). Animals extract a deadly tooth from his head in the nick of time.
10. He jumps to another tree (Rslo).
A great many folktales end on the note of rescue from pursuit, The hero arrives home and subsequently marries (provided he has obtained a girl). Nevertheless, this is not generally prevalent.
A tale often may have another misfortune in store for the hero:
a villain may appear once again, may steal whatever Ivan has ob­tained, and may finally kill him. An initial villainy is, in a word, repeated either in the same form as in the beginning of a given tale or, as sometimes happens, in another, new form, correspond­ing to the case in point. With this a new story commences. There are no specific forms of repeated villainies (i.e., we are once again confronted with either an abduction, an enchantment, or a murder, etc.), but there are specific villains connected with the new misfortune(s), namely, Ivan's elder brothers. Shortly after his arrival home they steal his prize and often kill him. If they permit him to remain alive, it is for the sake of instigating another search, for which a special barrier must, somehow, again be placed between the hero and the object of search. This is ac­complished by their throwing him into a chasm (into a pit, a subterranean kingdom, or, as sometimes is the case, into the sea), into which he may sometimes fall for three days on end. There­upon, everything begins anew (i.e., again, an accidental meeting with a donor; a successfully completed ordeal [or; service ren­dered], etc.; the receipt of a magical agent, its employment, in order that the hero may return home to his own kingdom). From this moment onward, development is different from in the begin­ning of the tale (to which we return later).
This phenomenon attests to the fact that many folktales are composed of two kinds of functions which may be labelled "moves." , A new villainous act creates a new move, and, in this manner, sometimes a whole range of folktales. Nevertheless, the process of development to be described later does constitute the continua­tion of a given tale, despite the fact that it also creates a new move. In connection with this, one must eventually ask how to distinguish the number of tales in each text.
VIII (bis). Ivan's brothers steal his booty from him and cast him into a chasm.
Villainy has already been designated as A. If the brothers kidnap Ivan's bride, the designation for this act would be A1. If they steal a magical agent, one is confronted with an AZ incident. Theft accompanied by murder is termed Ali. Forms connected with the hero's t being thrown into a chasm shall be designated as ,A1, =:;A?, TA14, and so forth.
X-XI (bis). The hero once more sets out in search of some­thing (Gt) (cf. X-XI).
This element is sometimes omitted here. Ivan wanders about and weeps, as though not thinking about returning. Element B (dispatch) is also always absent in such instances, since there is no reason for dispatching Ivan once his bride, for example, has been kidnapped from him.
XII (bis). The hero once again is the subject of actions leading to the receipt of a magical agent (D) (cf. XII ). XIII (bis). The hero again reacts to the actions of the future donor (E) (cf. XIII).
XIV (bis). A new magical agent is placed at the hero's dis­posal (F) (cf. XIV).
XV (bis). The hero once again reaches by himself or is transported to the location of the object of the quest (G) (cf. XV ).        In this case he reaches home.
From this point onward, the development of the narrative pro­ceeds differently, and the tale gives evidence of new functions. XXIII. The hero, unrecognized, arrives home or in another
country. (Definition: unrecognized arrival. Designa­C ti on: 6A)
Here, two classes are distinguishable:  1) arrival home, in which the hero stays with some sort of artisan (goldsmith, tailor, shoe­maker, etc.), serving as an apprentice; 2) he arrives either as a cook or a groom. At the same time it is sometimes necessary to single out and designate even a simple arrival.
XXV. A difficult task is proposed to the hero. (Definition: the difficult task. Designation: M.)
This is one of the folktale's favorite elements. Tasks are as­signed, as well, outside the connections previously described; these connections will be dealt with somewhat later. In the mean­while, let us rather take up the matter of the tasks per se.      These tasks are so varied that each would need a special designation as a special case. There is, however, no need yet to go further in­to these details. Although no exact distribution will be made, I shall enumerate, here, all instances present in the material on hand, having approximately arranged them into groups:
Ordeal by food and drink: to eat a certain number of oxen or wagonloads of bread; to drink a great deal of wine (77, 78, 83).
Ordeal by fire: to bathe in a burning hot cast-iron tub. This form is always connected with the previous ordeal (77, 78, 83). Bathing mentioned otherwise: a bath in boiling water (103). Riddle guessing and similar ordeals: to solve an unsolvable riddle (132); to recount and interpret a dream (134); to explain the meaning of ravens' croaking at the king's window, and to drive them away (138); to find out
(to guess) the distinctive marks of the king's daughter (131).
Ordeal of choice: to select the sought after person among twelve identical girls (or boys) (125, 126, 240). Hide and seek: to hide and stay hidden, avoiding discovery (130).
To kiss the princess in a window (105, 106). To jump up on the gates (57).
Test of strength, cleverness, and fortitude: the princess perfumes Ivan at night, or rubs his hand (116, 76); to lift the heads of decapitated dragons (104); to break in a horse (116); to milk dry a herd of wild mares (103); to triumph over an amazon (118); to defeat a rival (101).
Test of endurance: to spend seven years in the tin kingdom (151). As tasks of delivery and manufacture: to deliver a medicine (67); to obtain a wedding dress, a ring, and shoes (73, 79, 93, 103); to deliver the hair of the king of the sea (77, 133); to deliver a flying boat (83); to deliver running water (83); to deliver a troop of soldiers (83); to deliver seventy-seven mares (103); to build a palace during one night (112) (and a bridge lead­ing to it '1121]); "prinesti k moemu neznaemomu _pod paru." As tasks of manu_facture: to sew shirts (59, 150); to bake bread (150). As the third task, the king asks who dances better.
Other tasks: to pick berries from a certain bush or tree (56, 57); to cross a pit on a pole (77); to have a candle light by itself (114).
The method of differentiation of these tasks from other highly similar elements will be outlined in the chapter on assimilations.
XXVI. A task is accomplished. (Definition: solution. Designation: N.)
Forms of accomplishment correspond, of course, to the forms of tasks. Certain tasks are completed before they are set, or before the time required by the person assigning the task in question (i.e., the hero finds out the princess' distinctive marks before he is requested to guess what they are). Prelimi­nary solutions of this type shall be designated by the sign *N.
XXVII. The hero is recognized. (Definition: recognition. Designation: Q.)
He is recognized by a mark, a brand (a wound, a star mark­ing), or by a thing given to him (a ring, towel, etc.). In this case, recognition serves as a function, corresponding to branding and marking. The hero is also recognized through his accomplish­ment of a difficult task (in this case an unrecognized arrival of the hero almost always precedes recognition of him).        Finally, the hero may be recognized immediately upon his appearance after a long period of absence. In the latter case, parents and children, brothers and sisters, may recognize one another, etc.
XXVIII. The false hero or villain is exposed. (Definition: exposure. Designation: Ex.)
This function is, in most cases, connected with the one pre­ceding. Often, it is the result of an uncompleted task (the false hero is incapable of lifting the dragon's heads). More often than not, it is present in the form of a story ("Here the princess told all about how it was."). Sometimes all events are recounted from the very beginning in the form of a folktale. The villain is among the listeners, and he gives himself away by expressions of disap­proval (115). Sometimes a song is sung, telling of a series of
events that have occurred and, in being sung, serves to expose the villain (137). Other individual instances of exposure are also in evidence (144).
XXIX. The hero is given a new appearance. (Definition: transfiguration. Designation: T.)
1. A new appearance is directly effected by means of the magical action of a helper (T1). The hero passes through the ears of a horse (or cow) and receives a new, handsome appearance.
Z. The hero builds a marvelous palace (TZ). He re­sides in the palace himself, as the prince. A maiden suddenly awakens after spending a night there (70). Although the hero is not always trans­formed in these instances, he, nevertheless, does undergo a change in personal appearance.
3. The hero puts on new garments (T3). A girl dresses in a (magical) dress and hat and suddenly assumes a radiant beauty (129).
4. Rationalized and humorous forms (T4). These forms are partly explained by those preceding (as their transformations), and, in part, must be studied and explained in connection with the study
of folktale anecdotes, whence they originate. Ac­tual changes of appearance do not take place in these cases: a new appearance is achieved by means of deception. For example, a fox brings Kuzinka, who is supposed to have fallen into a
ditch. The fox is given the royal garments. Kuzinka appears in the royal attire and is taken for the king's son. All similar instances may be formu­lated in the following manner: false evidence of wealth and beauty is accepted as true.
XXX. The villain is punished. (Definition: punishment. Designation: U.)
The villain is shot, banished, tied to the tail of a horse, com­mits suicide, and so forth. At times, one of these incidences is accompanied by a magnanimous pardon (U neg.). Usually only the villain and the false hero of the secondary narrative are punished, while the first villain is punished only in those cases in which a bat­tle and pursuit are absent from the story. Otherwise, he is killed in battle or perishes during the pursuit (a witch bursts in an at­tempt to drink up the sea, etc.).
XXXI. The hero is married and ascends the throne. (Defini­tion: wedding. Designation: W.)
1. A bride and a kingdom are awarded at once. Other­wise, he receives half a kingdom, with the stipulation that he will receive the remainder after the death of the bride's parents (W*;-,).
2. Sometimes the hero simply marries without obtain­ing a throne, due to the fact that his bride is not a princess
3. Sometimes, to the contrary, only accession to the throne is taken into consideration (W,,ti).
=1. If a new act of villainy interrupts a tale shortly be­fore a bethrothal, then the first stage of action ends with a promise of marriage (W1).
5. Opposite to the preceding case, a married hero loses his wife; the marriage is resumed as the re­sult of a quest (designation for a resumed mar­riage: WZ).
6. The hero sometimes receives a monetary reward or some other form of compensation in place of the princess' hand (W°).

 

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