The Social Psychology of Cyberspace: Self and Community in the Age of the Internet

PSY 380.K

Miami University
Spring Semester, 1998

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Individual Projects

New Guidelines for 1999

Teresa Cattaneo
The Surge of Artficial Intelligence: Time to Re-examine Ourselves
Charles Cohara
The Internet in Libraries: Filtered, or "In Loco Parentis"?
Rick Dietrich
Software Agents: Social and Psychological
Implications
Jill Grear
To Implement or Not to Implement, That is the Question:
An Examination of the Effects of Computers in the Schoolroom
Doug Hanniford
The Possibilities of Artificial Intelligence
Dan Imler
The Computer and I: Friends or Relatives?
Jeremiah Jackson
A Comparison of Multimedia Information Media: The Truth about Television and Radio and the False Promises of the Internet
Matt Kiefaber
Social Implications of Online Multi-Player Gaming
J.R. Little
Hyping the Net: Motivations and Assumptions
Ben Nagy
A Week in the Life of a Newsgroup:  The Patterns, People and Social Behaviors Exhibited on Usenet
Taralyn Riordan
Amber Ruth
Today's Student - Computers, Reference and Research
Asmeret Tekeste-Green
Spamming

 

Teresa Cattaneo

The Surge of Artificial Intelligence: Time To Re-examine Ourselves

[A Web version of this project is available at http://www.miamioh.edu/psybersite/aisurge/index.shtml]

    Artificial intelligence has been around since the late 1950's. However, advancements with artificially intelligent robots have only taken place recently. Scientists exploring this phenomena have taken many different approaches in creating a human-like robot. Two famous approaches are known as bottom-up and top-down. These two theories are in opposition of one another on how intelligence in humans is formed. The bottom-up approach concerning artificial intelligence explores how a robot with human-like features can learn from its environment through interactions. The top-down approach assumes that human intelligence is an inference of millions of facts and that an artificially intelligent robot, with programmed facts and an inference program, can begin to think on an intelligent level.

    Artificial intelligence already is present in today's fast paced world. It is used most commonly in factory assembly lines as a means of efficient production and lowered costs. The future of artificial intelligence, however, is not as clear. Artificial Intelligence will hopefully begin to replace humans in dangerous and unsatisfactory conditions. Because radioactive elements and confined low oxygen areas are not a threat to artificially intelligent robots, they are being manipulated to fill those positions currently undertaken by humans. Many scientists also believe that artificial intelligence will be a great addition to a busy world by eliminating some of the tedious, time consuming tasks done by humans. Other scientists feel that because we are striving to mold a potentially powerful object that humans are simultaneously creating their own destruction.

    With this mixture of conflicting thoughts, feelings and emotions is a re-examination of humanity process. As humans try to search for the future possibilities of artificial intelligence they stumble upon questions of identity and uniqueness. Is it really possible to create a robot that thinks like a human? Will this robot become smarter than humans? This mental struggle leads to an appreciation for the human mind and its talents and thought processes. Trying to copy intelligence has not been an easy task. What was once oversimplified by scientists, is now construed as complicated and multi-faceted. When pondering artificial intelligence we are going through a process of re-examination which more than likely will bring us closer to what it means to be human. For more information on artificial intelligence go to "The Surge of Artificial Intelligence: Time To Re-examine Ourselves."

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Matt Kiefaber

Social Implications of Online Multi-Player Gaming

 [A Web Version of this Project is Available at: http://www.miamioh.edu/psybersite/onlinegames/index.shtml]

    Gaming is inherently social. Throughout history, playing games has been closely linked with building relationships and reinforcing social hierarchies. However, with the advent of video games, this social aspect of gaming quickly began to disappear. Almost all of these video games were solitaire in nature, and it was rare to find a game that incorporated the play of two or more players. Along with this anti-social aspect, many other negative issues were brought forth concerning video game play: addiction, aggressive behavior, decrease in intelligence, and promotion of gender biases and stereotypes. With the recent growth in popularity of the Internet, these once solitaire games have evolved into a new medium, online gaming. The Internet has allowed people in different locations to play games with each other. Thus, the Internet has provided an excellent platform to return games to their social roots. How does this new medium potentially answer the issues that have thus far plagued video games? And what new issues might be brought forth because of this new environment? These implications of online gaming are going to be examined and hopefully some answers will be brought forth. What was discovered was that online gaming did provide some solutions to the negative aspects associated with video games. Most importantly, they reintroduce the ever important aspect of socialization. These online games also have a decreased amount of violent content. Furthermore, they promote knowledge growth. However, although online gaming has provided some answers, new problems have also arisen. Perhaps the biggest fear is the increased competition which arises from the implementation of ranking ladders and online tournaments. Many fear that this may lead to addiction, thereby taking away from the social experience.

    Another characteristic of online games is that they provide the potential of forming online identities and communities. These communities usually conform to an pre-established form of etiquette and as in all communities, leaders and "bullies" arise. The future of online gaming looks bright. With increased technology the biggest problems of latency and lag will be eliminated. Online gaming also brings new potential to the educational platform of video games and many see that these games will be a common place in schools in the near future.


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Amber Ruth

Today's Student - Computers, Reference and Research

    Today's student is greatly effected by the quality and quantity of research materials available to them. Does the greater resouce availability help to produce a better finished product or does it bog down the user? I attempt to evaluate the use of the Internet reference and research areas as well as similar uses for America On-line and other technical uses I have found for today's students. I could in no way, encompass every useful aspect of computers or the Internet relevant to today's student.

    Listed in my paper are some of the more useful sites I observed and their web addresses, an interpretation of the uses for the average user, and a rating of which I based on the type of information available through the site, how user friendly the site is, and the ease in which the student can find information on their subject.

    Another aspect of the student's use of the Internet is the familiarity, and location of the user with the particular tool which is used. Attempting to recreate typical student searches, I conducted my research in a variety of settings which the average student has access to. I had a feeling of incompetence when faced with an unfamiliar computer terminal, much like that of a new student of whom has yet to be involved with similar machinery.

    I tried to encompass all of the areas which I have been involved with both computers and students. Looking back, I did not mention the Mathematics departments use of Minitab for Statistics and the other useful applications valid to the study of Mathematics. I did, however, mention the use of web sites and other applications for help with learning foreign languages. Included in my links are several language sites, and even a current currency converter.

    I advise anyone who uses the Internet as a resource for a research paper to be aware that there are sites that may disguise themselves as reliable resources. Public opinion, such as newsgroups and chatrooms are not reliable resources of information. Mostly, make your decisions wisely, contact you teacher if you have any questions about validity of a website.

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Rick Dietrich

Software Agents: Social and Psychological Implications

[A Web Version of this Project is Available at: http://www.miamioh.edu/psybersite/cyberspace/agents/]

    I explored the development of Software Agents, specifically those being developed by Dr. Maes and the Software Agents Group at MIT and whatever other examples of agents I could find on the Internet, like the related phenomenon of Bots. I found Dr. Maes’ web site at http://pattie.www.media.mit.edu/people/pattie/, and there is a huge resource of information off of her web site: Firefly, Inc. (her company that has commercialized, to some extent, software agents); her vita, publications, projects, goals; a huge slide show of what software agents are about (over 100 slides/web pages); the link to the Software Agents Group at MIT; and much more. The Software Agents Group (SAG) has a listing of not only publications but also ongoing projects, some of which offer beta versions of software. The one I found so far was for a UNIX environment, and I never have found a Windows application.

    I checked out the Firefly, Inc. site and I got for myself a user passport there. The user passport allowed me to log on and activate my passport and then go to various sites that support the passport and the passport will remember my preferences and so tailor things to my tastes. Part of this is MyYahoo, which tailored my Yahoo searches and such based on previous searches. It asked me to rate a list of ten sites, then ten more sites, then ten more, etc. However, after some time of rating various web sites the content of the sites tended to conform to what I had rated of high interest/appeal and less to what I had rated of low interest/appeal. Firefly, Inc. also has a web page for each member which gives a picture of members (if used), any personal info you want, a list of interests and favorite web sites, etc. You can also check out various chat areas and find other web sites through your passport, which then tailors things toward the user. For example, Barnes & Noble is now connected via Firefly. Besides putting me on a mailing list of Barnes & Noble products, I believe that advertisements on the web sites as well as some of the links shown are tailored to what I’ve shown an interest in when previously at that site.

    What did I do for my project? Well, I explored this software agent idea more and to see how complete and accessible to the public it is. Unfortunately, at this stage I couldn’t do much more than read journal articles and a few books about it. Most of the actual products available are commercially available to businesses, but not really useful to individuals. The technology as it exists right now is relatively new, and so there are contending ideas as to how it should be implemented. Some people want some kind of software that individual users can take advantage of, however that software seems to be a future stage or in the works. Other people have already implemented some software to work at commercial sites so as to tailor the site to individual visitors. Meaning, the site has the agent technology, remembers specific visitors and tailors the visitors’ experiences of the site based on previous visits.

    One of the main concepts in Dr. Maes research is that of "community wares", which essentially amounts to software brokering information on behalf of their users. Thus, each person would have their own agent that would "know" the users areas of expertise, and agents would then "interact" with each other and negotiate on behalf of their users for the information/knowledge that their user(s) want. Even to the point of "discussing" monetary compensation so as to bargain for the "teaching" services the user would provide the other users after their respective agents had "hammered" out an agreeable deal. While I doubt this would replace traditional education in schools, it does offer an interesting supplement if not alternative.

    As for trying this technology and then offering my opinion as to how it will effect computer/human and human/computer interaction? I found that I could write up a lengthy philosophical and perhaps psychological examination of agent technology, but in the spirit of the Internet, I thought it would be better to present the technology as I found it and provide links to visitors to explore as they wish. My own valuation of agents is favorable, as I foresee it as something very exciting and worthwhile, however there are many concerns, like the obvious security and privacy issues, but also the future issues of intelligence, legal rights, and stuff associated with a potential artificial intelligence. I quoted a few paragraphs from a science fiction novel The Rise of Endymion by Dan Simmons to showcase what I see as the potential in agent technology, but also the dangers in allowing autonomous, motivated, "intelligent" software roam "free" in the Internet, a realm of existence to which we have very little real access or experience of our own without a computer.

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Dan Imler

The Computer and I: Friends or Relatives?

    In the past there has always been a well-established dividing line between what is living and what is not. With the advent of artificial life these boundaries have become blurred as new entries have challenged this dividing line. What the future holds, no one knows, but with only two challenges, complexity and time standing in the way, the artificial revolution seems to be upon us.

    The first half of my paper tries to set the stage for both biological and binary systems, and make it is obvious that there are many correlations. I start out by showing that natural DNA and binary codes both have basically the same form and function. After the computer code has been written, to put this code into use there must be a virtual chemistry that mimics the patterns of "real" life. With both of these, it is possible to form functions, equivalent to genes, and to segregate crossover and mutate them with genetic algorithms. Thus, this creates varying, but still linked genotypes, across the population. From these genotypes, phenotypes are created which enact certain behavior indicative to their code. Different behaviors conform to different fitness levels and from these comes the selection of evolution. Therefore, through my research I was able to form a linear pattern leading to the development of artificial life.

    The second and possibly more important section that I examined was the social implications of artificial life. Since this is a fairly new phenomenon, in terms of effecting us socially, there are few current social problems, but rather foreshadows of consequences for the future. I looked at how many people tend to fear the drastic social change that artificial life would surely bring, and also at people’s fear of losing their economic welfare to the new beings. In addition to looking at the detrimental theories on artificial life I examined the possible benefits including a higher standard of living for humans as well as new social relationships with the new creatures. Next, I explored how the new entities might adapt to our society or if they would form there own, and how our contemporary society would adjust to them. Finally, I tried to dissect the central question, should create these "things" at all.

    As I said in my paper "Life is precious and to create it would be one of the most monumental feats ever accomplished by man, but life is also a great responsibility, both for the one who gives and the one who receives." By examining the possibility and implications of this technological birth we will be at least partially prepared for whatever the future holds.

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Jill Grear

To Implement or Not to Implement, That is the Question:
An Examination of the Effects of Computers in the Schoolroom

    There are many misconceptions about the implementation of computers in schools. One worry that is laid out by critics of the technology is that teachers will lose their traditional role as the authority in the classroom, as well as wasting critical lesson planning time on computer training sessions. Also, within the classroom, teachers would take time away from the normal curriculum to make room for the computer, and in so doing, they would eliminate worthwhile human interaction in favor of passive attention to a computer screen. Others are concerned about children being exposed to inappropriate material on the World Wide Web, and they wonder why this technology should be instituted into the schoolroom when so many generations have gone without it. They say that if the computer is overly emphasized, then students' creativity could be stunted. These concerns prevent critics from giving technology their wholehearted support.

    Many people counter these arguments, though, and call for the thorough integration of computers in schools. These proponents of technology suggest that when teachers learn about computers simultaneously with their students, this will create more teacher-student interaction. Also, by participating in online programs, a class could interact with others around the world. Advocates of computers say that virtual simulations can help a child to understand a concept that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to illustrate, and because of the quick feedback afforded by computers, they are able to meet students at their ability level and challenge them to strive beyond it. Because of the great number of possibilities that can be facilitated by computers, kids are enabled to become more, instead of less, creative. Computers can create professional quality projects and they help in planning more interesting styles of presentation, thus motivating students to give their best effort.

    Since the "computer revolution" has only begun recently, many prospective or present teachers have reservations about their own skills on computers. In order to alleviate the stress they might feel about implementing technology into the classroom, certain organizations have been legislated to mitigate the transition and to offer support and suggestions to teachers. One of these organizations is SCHOOLNET, which serves the state of Ohio by providing training sessions and ideas for using computers in the school setting. SCHOOLNET encourages its teachers to utilize computers to produce creative projects instead of limiting their potential to mere drill and practice games.

    An example of one of these computer-oriented projects is to analyze popular opinions on different American wars by posting surveys on an Internet bulletin board. Another suggestion is to use a computer program to make a presentation on a different culture, using pictures, graphs, maps, and music. One idea that has been used is to have students create "talking books" and then use them to teach younger students in the school. Students can also participate in Internet-based projects such as "Journey North," in which a class communicates with other schools around the world about observations of tulips and Monarch butterflies. Yet another idea is to ask students to gather pictures of an important local landmark and to write a description of it. These items can then be posted on the Web as "virtual tour guides." These are just several of the many interesting and exciting projects that can be performed using a computer.

    Clearly, the use of computers in the classroom can stimulate students to try new ideas and it can animate an otherwise routine school experience. With the prevalent nature of computers in our world, it would be shortchanging our students to deprive them of the obvious benefits that can be obtained from technology. It is left to the teachers and administrators to take advantage of the wealth of information available on Web sites and through support organizations so that they can effectively use computers in their curriculum. With appropriate implementation, computers can greatly improve our children's education.

 

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Charles Cohara

The Internet in Libraries: Filtered, or "In Loco Parentis"?

[The entire text of this project can be viewed at www.miamioh.edu/~coharaca/filter/]

    This paper examined the brewing controversy over whether or not content filters should be used on public computers. While the Internet is an incredible source of information, many materials exist on the web which may be inappropriate to children. Some feel that children should be protected from this material, and that software should be implemented to prevent them from viewing it. At the center of this issue is pornography, but this leads to several questions. What is pornography? Who should decide what pornography is? And, once this issue has been decided, how can we stop this pornography from reaching children?

    Traditionally, libraries have fought to keep all materails on their shelves. So naturally, they have been reluctant to censor material of any kind. However, true pornography is something that has been rather bare on the shelves. So, some libraries have tried to use filtering software on their computers. But, this software has been found to be inadequate, blocking many seemingly harmless sites, such as gay rights pages, and have let others slip through the cracks. This has led to a strong backlash of anti-filter groups who see this as an impingement on their first ammendment rights.

    The groups which are fighting filtering software are the traditional defenders of free speech, such as the ACLU and the ALA (American Library Association). They feel that putting in place such filters would lead to a domino effect of the censoring of other controversial issues besides pornography. They also point out the many flaws within the software. Those groups have been in the court, in the halls of legislation, and in the press crying to prevent such software from being implemented.

    The groups that are advocating the use of software feel that allowing children to access pornography because of "free speech" is taking that traditional right a little bit too far. Most of these groups feel that blocking pornography is OK as long it stops there. They are fighting the ALA and the ACLU because they feel that their stance on filtering software is far too radical. Their main concern is that they are attempting to protect their children from this material at home, only to find that they can access such material in their local library, a seemingly harmless place.

    The software companies themselves have a long way to go. There are many inherent flaws in the software, especially since such ideas as "dangerous," "harmful," and "pornographic" are so subjective. Examination of their software shows that they still have a long way to go before this software becomes a practical solution.

    This issue is having a strong impact on many communities. One such community is found in Medina, OH, where it turned into a heated campaign issue. Needing funding, the library turned to the community for a levy renewal. Several groups, angry over the library's refusal to put the software in place, even on the computers in the childrenUs section, lobbied to the community that the issue be voted down so that the library would start listening. In the end, the library won, but not without some serious controversy. Is there a solution? Currently no, but with the proper changes in software, over time there should be one. Libraries should be able to restrict the same electronic materials that they restrict in the printed form. Playboys, Hustlers, and XXX movies are never found on the shelves in the libraries. Why should they be found on the screens of their computers? Each group needs to not take such a strong stance, and work towards a common ground. Over time, legislation will be able to catch up with technology.

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Asmeret Tekeste-Green

Spamming

    This project focuses on Spamming and America Online. It defines and discusses spamming by explaining the various types of spam that exist which includes advertisments, chainletters, and pyramid schemes. It then goes on to discuss America Online's privacy policy, its reputation as a
"Spamming Paradise" and the its recent lawsuits. This information is followed by the explaination of the two laws that declare spamming illegal as well as a proposal of how to stop spamming.
 

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J.R. Little

Hyping the Net: Motivations and Assumptions

    There can be no doubt that the Internet has had an influence on our society. Ever since 1993, the Internet has been growing at a rate weve never seen in any other technology. Part of the reason for this rapid growth has been the view that this technology is nothing but good for us and is necessary for the future. As a result, schools and companies alike are rushing to provide access to computers and the Internet.

    Not everybody agrees, however, that all of this connectivity is good for us. Authors like Theodore Roszack, who wrote The Cult of Information, and Neil Postman, author of Technopoly, try and warn society about the dangers of blindly accepting this technology. They claim that computers have brought negative effects upon our society and that we take certain things for granted when we implement computer networks.

    One such negative effect is the loss of the individuals privacy: there now exist databases full of information about each consumer in our society. Even more insidiously, the government is using technology to record and store more and more information about us.

    Computers have also resulted in a huge blurring of our culture. Instead of uniting world cultures, the Internet has melted them together into one huge culture, usually operating at the lowest common denominator. Computers have invaded our schools- limiting creativity through their rigid rules and replacing thought and literacy with mere computer competence. Computers mean more errors, amplified mistakes, more difficult tasks, and shallower thought. The Internet is wide, but it is not deep. It lacks quality, and it is not a substitute for the real world.

    Despite these things, we embrace computers (in the words of Ian Boal) as a flood embraces a house- rendering the house useless in the process. Clifford Stoll and Roszack believe that this is because we are making certain assumptions about the technology that are not necessarily true. Foremost, we assume that the technology will make life simpler. This is never the case- technology just raises our standard of living and requires more work than ever to maintain it due to its increased complexity. We also assume that online life is a legitimate replacement for real life. While this may be more of a philosophical question, I believe that an online experience, like browsing the web or sending email, will never equal the quality of tossing a ball around, talking with friends, or smelling a flower.

    Hovering above these other assumptions is the idea that technology is good. Technology can be good or evil- the damage weve done to our environment is a chilling reminder of this. As far as computer networks go, well, between the 1950s and the 1990s computer errors brought us to the brink of World War III on three separate occasions- and those are just the ones that were made public.

    So why all the hype, if computers are so bad? Roszack believes that there are specific groups who promote computers for their own gain. One group is computer scientists- for the more we rely on computers, the more we rely on them. Others are those in the computer businesses- they promote the idea that these computers are necessary so that we buy their products.

    Despite the criticism, the Internet does have useful purpose. It makes an excellent resource for cultural information. It can be used to subvert governments, as no government could destroy the net. And it can offer a certain degree of entertainment. It is up to us to separate the good uses from the bad, and to keep the computers in their proper place in our society- as tools, not our masters.

 

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Doug Hanniford

The Possibilities of Artificial Intelligence

 "In The Second Shelf I reported on a group of children at the beach who became deeply engrossed in the question of whether the computer toy Merlin could cheat at tic-tac-toe, and, if so, whether this meant that it was alive. The children came up with such formulations as, "yes, it's alive, it cheats," "yes, it's alive, it cheats, but it doesn't know it's cheating," and "no, it's not alive, knowing is part of cheating." Four children-ages six to eight-played in the surf amid their shoreline sand castles and argued the moral and metaphysical status of a machine on the basis of traits normally reserved for people and animals: Did the machine know what it was doing? Did it have intentions, consciousness, feelings?" (Turkle, 1995, 80)

    In this excerpt from Sherry Turkle's book, Life on the Screen, the idea of artificial intelligence and how people perceive it arises. In this section of her book, Turkle examines the evolution of human (especially children) perception of artificial intelligence from the late 1970's to the mid 1990's. Her research shows that the way in which people perceive artificial intelligence has changed significantly during this time and is still changing. In agreement, I believe that perceptions are always evolving and that, even in so short a period as three years, these perceptions have changed. The idea of already changed perceptions of artificial intelligence, however, is not the most important aspect of this issue, but rather, the most important aspect [from a psychological viewpoint] of artificial intelligence is how these changing perceptions will evolve as the technology advances and what the implications of these perceptions could be.

    In this paper, I explore a wide range of ideas associated with the development of artificial intelligence. I look into the current technologies and the possible future breakthroughs and my beliefs of how they will come about. From the advancement of artificial intelligence technology, I examine peoples' perceptions and how they have changed over time, as an extension to the information Sherry Turkle analyzed in her most recent book, Life On the Screen. I use the information which she has provided and my own research of current perceptions of artificial intelligence to draw conclusions as to what the possible implications this technology and the perceptions of this technology could be. There are many different ideas and possibilities, but the whole essence of the artificial intelligence issue is that we will be forced to reevaluate ourselves. And with that, we will be forced to reexamine what intelligence is and what it is to be alive. I do this by comparing my ideas of our future identity and perceptions to other view points which have evolved recently. By relating my ideas with those of other people, I attempt to show the general direction that humanity will take as we progress in our understanding and acceptance of artificial intelligence.

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Jeremiah Jackson

A Comparison of Multimedia Information Media: The Truth about Television and Radio and the False Promises of the Internet

    My paper is an anaylsis of the history of radio, television, and the internet. I then make predictions to the future usage of the internet based upon the history of its similar media. In the paper I assert that the internet will be used as a educational tool rather than for educational purposes.

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Ben Nagy

A Week in the Life of a Newsgroup: the patterns, people and social behaviors exhibited on Usenet

    Usenet has been in existence since 1980, making it one of the oldest portions of the Internet. Although particular portions of the Internet such as the World Wide Web have grown tremendously to match the traffic of Usenet, the thousands upon thousands of newsgroups available for practically everyone to read makes this text-based form of computer-mediated-communication one of the most topically diverse and one of the most easily accessible. Usenet has expanded so greatly from its humble beginnings as a single newsgroup connecting two universities in 1980 that it now has an average of 19,000 posts per day or the equivalent of 20,000 printed pages and is split up into a number of branched topical areas where messages may be posted and read by anyone who has an e-mail address (or a reasonable approximation) and newsgroup reader software.

    Usenet is more than just a forest of rapidly dividing branches skewing off from a main topical hierarchy, however. Newsgroups provide a type of open forum for their users where they may engage in discussion, antagonizm others, behave belligerently through flamings of other users or simply lurk around and see what everyone else has to say about virtually any topic on the face of the planet. Individuals set up their own community of sorts with specific structures, limitations and rules.

    My study attempted to apply many of the scholarly interpretations and speculations about computer-mediated-communication, including ideas by Baym and a host of others in order to apply them to a specific newsgroup of my choosing. The newsgroup I chose was called alt.folklore.urban and I read through and selected postings listed on the newsgroup which appeared to indicate an important issue relevant to some of the past readings including the manners in which the community within the newsgroup is constructed. Some of these issues included whether there appeared to be a hierarchical structure of particular Usenet contributors dominating the group itself, what sort of interactions were occurring in the wake of this dominance and were there any specific character traits? Were people simply at each other's thraoats or were there any visible motivations behind conflicts upon the group.

    In addition to gauging some perceived antagonism on the a.f.u. newsgroup towards new contributors (or "newbies"), I then explored some of the positive aspects of Usenet such as the freedom some individuals may receive from becoming involved in a text-based community. However, with any perceived freedom, it also seemed that there were limitations, not only in the manner of expression available to those on the group (text-based communications), but self-imposed limitations placed on what could be said or done while behaving as a member of the a.f.u. community.

    Finally, I also made a cursory profile description of five typical types of Usenet participants who seem ubiquitous among all newsgroups and not just a.f.u.

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Taralyn Riordan

[Description Removed at Request of Taralyn Riordan]

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Psy 380.K Miami University. Last revised: Tuesday, March 11, 2014 at 17:14:22. This document has been accessed 1 times since Jan 7, 1998. Comments & Questions to R. Sherman . Also See: Social Psychology at Miami University