George Lakoff, Mark Johnson, Metaphors We Live By

Lakoff and Johnson say that we often use "spatial orientations" conceptually. Spatial orientations -- that is, locating something somewhere in space -- arise because we have bodies of the sort we do: we see (or know of) things in front of us, below us above us, etc. So we sometimes associate abstract ideas that do not really have a location with a particular place in space. In this way, certain abstract ideas are linked to others that. This kind of thinking in which we "organize a whole system of concepts with respect to one another" is visible in what Lakoff and Johnson call "orientational metaphors":

We will be looking at up=down spatialization metaphors . . . . :

  1. HAPPY IS UP; SAD IS DOWN
  2. CONSCIOUS IS UP; UNCONSCIOUS IS DOWN
  3. HEALTH AND LIFE ARE UP; SICKNESS AND DEATH ARE DOWN
  4. HAVING CONTROL OR FORCE ARE UP; BEING SUBJECT TO CONTROL OR FORCE IS DOWN
  5. MORE IS UP; LESS IS DOWN
  6. FUTURE EVENTS ARE UP (and AHEAD)
  7. STATUS IS UP; LOW STATUS IS DOWN
  8. GOOD IS UP; BAD IS DOWN
  9. VIRTUE IS UP; DEPRAVITY IS DOWN
  10. RATIONAL IS UP; EMOTIONAL IS DOWN

Lakoff and Johnson discovered that we as a culture organize our values spatially in this way by looking at the things we say when speaking everyday, in ordinary language. Can you tell which ordinary sentence goes with which of the metaphors above? Enter a number from the list above:

A. She'll rise to the top.

B. All upcoming events are listed in the paper.

C. She is morally upright, and an upstanding citizen.

D. Wake up.

E. I am on top of the situation.

F. I'm feeling down today.

G. He couldn't rise above his emotions.

H. The number of books printed each year keeps going up.

I. Things are looking up.

J. Which metaphor listed above is the primary metaphor in Judy Collins's song?