Insect Cryobiology

Books

Denlinger, D. L. and R. E. Lee. 2010. Low Temperature Biology of Insects. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 390 pp.

Lee, R. E., G. J. Warren and L. V. Gusta (eds.). 1995. Biological Ice Nucleation and its Applications. APS Press, St. Paul. 370 pp.

Lee, R. E. and D. L. Denlinger (eds.). 1991. Insects at Low Temperature. Chapman and Hall, New York, 513 pp.

Reviews & Book Chapters

(student authors in boldface

Goto, S.G., Lee, R.E. Jr., and D. L. Denlinger. 2015. Aquaporins in the Antarctic midge, an extremophile that relies on dehydration for cold survival. Biological Bulletin 229: 47-57. | PDF

Lee, R. E. and D. L. Denlinger. 2014. Stress tolerance in a polyextremophile: the southernmost insect. Canadian Journal of Zoology 93(9): 679-686. | PDF

Lee, R. E. and D. L. Denlinger. 2013. Terrestrial arthropods on the Antarctic Peninsula: the dominate land animals. In: Antarctica. By S. Arrebola and S. Jacobs. Buenos Aires: Vazquez Mazzini Pub. pp. 64-65. (Spanish version published in 2011) | PDF

Lee, R. E. 2010. A primer on insect cold tolerance. In: Low Temperature Biology of Insects (eds. D. L. Denlinger and R. E. Lee), pp. 3-34. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. | PDF

Lee, R. E. and D. L. Denlinger. 2010. Rapid cold-hardening: ecological significance and underpinning mechanisms. In: Low Temperature Biology of Insects (eds. D. L. Denlinger and R. E. Lee), pp 35-58. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. | PDF

Elnitsky, M. A. and R. E. Lee. 2009. The rapid cold-hardening response in insects: ecological significance and physiological mechanisms. In: Plant Cold Hardiness: from Laboratory to the Field (eds. L. V. Gusta, M. E. Wisniewski and K. K. Tanino), pp. 240-248. CAB International, Oxfordshire, UK. | PDF

Lee R. E. 2003. Dormancy. In: Encyclopedia of Insects (eds. V. Resh and R. Carde), pp. 344. San Diego, Academic Press. | PDF

Lee R. E. 2003. Hibernation. In: Encyclopedia of Insects (eds. V. Resh and R. Carde), pp. 508-509. San Diego, Academic Press. | PDF

Lee, R. E., L. A. Castrillo, M. R. Lee, J. A. Wyman, and J. P. Costanzo. 2001. Using ice-nucleating bacteria to reduce winter survival of Colorado potato beetles: development of a novel strategy for biological control. In: Insect Timing: Circadian Rhythmicity and Seasonality (eds. D. L. Denlinger, J. Giebultowicz and D. S. Saunders), pp. 213-227. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam. | PDF

Armstrong, J. S., R. E. Lee, and F. B. Peairs. 1998. Application of ice-nucleating active bacteria decreases the supercooling capacity of the Russian wheat aphid (Homoptera Aphididae). In: Response Model for an Introduced Pest — the Russian Wheat Aphid (eds. S. S. Quisenberry and F. B. Peairs), pp. 248-257. Entomological Society of America, Lanham, MD. | PDF

Lee, R. E., J. P. Costanzo, and J. A. Mugnano. 1996. Regulation of supercooling and ice nucleation in insects. European Journal of Entomology 93: 405-418. | PDF

Lee, R. E., M. R. Lee, and J. M. Strong-Gunderson. 1993. Insect cold-hardiness and ice nucleating active microorganisms including their potential use for biological control: A review. Journal of Insect Physiology 39: 1-12. | PDF

Denlinger, D. L., K. H. Joplin, C. -P. Chen, and R. E. Lee. 1991. Cold shock and heat shock. In: Insects at Low Temperature (eds. R. E. Lee and D. L. Denlinger), pp. 131-146. Chapman and Hall, New York. | PDF

Lee, R .E. 1991. Principles of insect low temperature tolerance. In: Insects at Low Temperature (eds. R. E. Lee and D. L. Denlinger), pp. 17-46. Chapman and Hall, New York. | PDF

Moore, M. V. and R. E. Lee. 1991. Surviving the big chill: overwintering strategies of aquatic and terrestrial insects. American Entomologist 37: 111-118. | PDF

Lee, R. E. 1989. Insect cold-hardiness: To freeze or not to freeze. BioScience 39: 308-313. | PDF

Denlinger, D. L. and R. E. Lee. 1998. Physiology of cold sensitivity. In: Temperature Sensitivity in Insects and Application in Integrated Pest Management (eds. G. J. Hallman and D. L. Denlinger), pp. 55-95. Westview Press, Boulder. | PDF

Lee, R. E. 1988. Freeze tolerance and adaptation to low temperature in insects and frogs. In: Low Temperature Biotechnology: Emerging Applications and Engineering Contributions BED Vol. 10, HTD Vol. 98 (eds. J. J. McGrath and K. R. Diller), pp. 81-90. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York. | PDF

Lee, R. E., D. L. Denlinger, and C. -P. Chen. 1988. Insect cold-hardiness and diapause: Regulatory relationships. In: Endocrinological Frontiers in Physiological Insect Ecology (eds. F. Sehnal, A. Zabza and D. L. Denlinger), pp. 243-262. Wroclaw Technical University Press, Wroclaw, Poland. | PDF

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Refereed Articles

(student authors in boldface)

2015-

Yi, S. X., and R. E. Lee, Jr. 2016. Cold-hardening during long-term acclimation in a freeze-tolerant woolly bear caterpillar, Pyrrharctia isabella. Journal of Experimental Biology 219: 17-25. | PDF

Kobelkova, A., Goto, S. G., Peyton, J. T., Ikeno, T., Lee, R. E., Jr., and Denlinger, D. L. 2015. Continuous activity and no cycling of clock genes in the Antarctic midge during the polar summer. Journal of Insect Physiology 81: 90-96. | PDF

Gantz, J. D., and R. E. Lee, Jr. 2015. The limits of drought-induced rapid cold-hardening: Extremely brief, mild desiccation triggers enhanced freeze-tolerance in Eurosta solidaginis larvae. Journal of Insect Physiology 73: 30-36. | PDF

2010-2014

Kelley, J. L., Peyton, J. T., Fiston-Lavier, A.-S., Teets, N. M., Yee, M.-C., Johnston, J. S., Bustamante, C. D., Lee, R. E., and D. L. Denlinger. 2014. Compact genome of the Antarctic midge is likely an adaptation to an extreme environment. Nature Communications 5, Article number: 4611 doi:10.1038/ncomms5611 | PDF

Kawarasaki, Y., Teets, N. M., Denlinger, D. L., and R. E. Lee, Jr. 2014. Alternative overwintering strategies in an Antarctic midge: freezing vs. cryoprotective dehydration. Functional Ecology 28: 933–943. | PDF

Harada, E., Lee, R. E., Denlinger, D. L., and S. G. Goto. 2014. Life history traits of adults and embryos of the Antarctic midge Belgica antarctica. Polar Biology 37:1-5 | PDF

Kawarasaki, Y., Teets, N. M., Denlinger, D. L., and R. E. Lee. 2014. Wet hibernacula promote inoculative freezing and limit the potential for cryoprotective dehydration in the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica. Polar Biology 37:753-761. | PDF

Kawarasaki, Y., Teets, N. M., Denlinger, D. L., and R. E. Lee. 2013. The protective effect of rapid cold-hardening develops more quickly in frozen versus supercooled larvae of the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica. Journal of Experimental Biology 216:3937-3945. | PDF

D'souza, N. A., Kawarasaki, Y., Gantz, J. D., Lee, R. E., Beall, B. F. N., Shtarkman, Y. M., ZA Kocer, Z. A., Rogers, S. O., Wildschutte, H., Bullerjahn, G. S., and R. M. L. McKay. 2013. Diatom assemblages promote ice formation in large lakes. The ISME Journal 7:1632-1640. | PDF

Teets, N. M.,Yi, S.-X., Lee, R. E., Jr., and D. L. Denlinger. 2013. Calcium signaling mediates cold sensing in insect tissues.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110:9154-9159. | PDF

Teets, N. M., Kawarasaki, Y., Lee, R. E., Jr., and D. L. Denlinger. 2013. Expression of genes involved in energy mobilization and osmoprotectant synthesis during thermal and dehydration stress in the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica. Journal of Comparative Physiology B 183:189-201. | PDF

Teets, N. M., Peyton, J. T., Colinet, H., Renault, D., Kelley, J. L., Kawarasaki, Y., Lee, R. E., Jr., and D. L. Denlinger. 2012. Gene expression changes governing extreme dehydration tolerance in an Antarctic insect. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109:20744-20749. | PDF

Levis, N. A., Yi, S.-X., and R. E. Lee. 2012. Mild desiccation rapidly increases freeze tolerance of the goldenrod gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis: evidence for drought-induced rapid cold-hardening.Journal of Experimental Biology 215: 3768-3773. | PDF

Teets, N. M., Kawarasaki, Y., R. E. Lee, and D. L. Denlinger. 2012. Energetic consequences of repeated and prolonged dehydration in the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica. Journal of Insect Physiology 58: 498-505. | PDF

Williams, J. B. and R. E. Lee. 2011. Effect of freezing and dehydration on ion and cryoprotectant distribution and
hemolymph volume in the goldenrod gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis. Journal of Insect Physiology 57:1163-1169. | PDF

Yi, S.-X., Benoit, J. B., Elnitsky, M. A., Kaufmann, N., Brodsky, J. L., Zeidel, M. L., Denlinger, D. L., and R. E. Lee. 2011. Function and immuno-localization of aquaporins in the Antarctic midge Belgica antarctica. Journal of Insect Physiology 57:1096-1105. | PDF

Goto, S. G., Philip, B. N., Teets, N. M., Kawarasaki, Y., Lee, R. E., and D. L. Denlinger. 2011. Functional characterization of an aquaporin in the Antarctic midge Belgica antarctica. Journal of Insect Physiology 57:1106-1114. | PDF

Teets, N. M., Kawarasaki, Y
., R. E. Lee, and D. L. Denlinger. 2011. Survival and energetic costs of repeated cold exposure in the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica: a comparison between frozen and supercooled larvae. Journal of Experimental Biology 214: 806-814. | PDF Corrigendum | PDF

Philip, B. N., Kiss, A. J., and R. E. Lee. 2011. The protective role of aquaporins in the freeze-tolerant insect Eurosta solidaginis: functional characterization and tissue abundance of EsAQP1. Journal of Experimental Biology 214: 848-857. | PDF

Yi, S.-X. and R. E. Lee. 2011. Rapid cold-hardening blocks cold-induced apoptosis by inhibiting the activation of pro-caspases in the flesh fly Sarcophaga crassipalpis. Apoptosis 16:249-255. | PDF

Philip, B. N. and R. E. Lee. 2010. Changes in abundance of aquaporin-like proteins occurs concomitantly with seasonal acquisition of freeze tolerance in the goldenrod gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis. Journal of Insect Physiology 56: 679-685. | PDF

Dollo, V. H., S.-X. Yi, and R. E. Lee. 2010. High temperature pulses decrease indirect chilling injury and elevate ATP levels in the flesh fly, Sarcophaga crassipalpis. Cryobiology 60: 351-353. | PDF

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2005-2009

Elnitsky, M. A., J. B. Benoit, G. Lopez-Martinez, D. L. Denlinger, and R. E. Lee. 2009. Osmoregulation and salinity tolerance in the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica: seawater exposure confers enhanced tolerance to freezing and dehydration. Journal of Experimental Biology 212: 2864-2871. | PDF

Benoit, J. B., G. Lopez-Martinez, M. A. Elnitsky, R. E. Lee, and D. L. Denlinger. 2009. Increase in feeding by the tick, Ixodes uriae, on Adelie penguins during a prolonged summer. Antarctic Science. 21: 151-152. | PDF

Li, A., J. B. Benoit, G. Lopez-Martinez, M. A. Elnitsky, R. E. Lee, and D. L. Denlinger. 2009. Distinct contractile and cytoskeletal protein patterns in the Antarctic midge are elicited by desiccation and rehydration. Proteomics :2788-2797. | PDF

Lopez-Martinez, G., J. B. Benoit, J. P. Rinehart, M. A. Elnitsky, R. E. Lee and D. L. Denlinger. 2009. Dehydration, rehydration and overhydration alter patterns of gene expression in the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica. Journal of Comparative Physiology B 179:481-91. | PDF

Nardi, J. B., L. A. Miller, C. M. Bee, R. E. Lee, and D. L. Denlinger. 2009. The larval alimentary canal of the antarctic insect, Belgica antarctica. Arthropod Structure & Development 38: 377-389.| PDF

Benoit, J. B., M. A. Elnitsky, G. G. Schulte, R. E. Lee and D. L. Denlinger. 2009. Antarctic collembolans use chemical signals to promote aggregation and egg laying. Journal of Insect Behavior 22: 121-133. | PDF

Benoit, J. B., G. Lopez-Martinez, M. A. Elnitsky, R. E. Lee, and D. L. Denlinger. 2009. Dehydration-induced cross tolerance of Belgica antarctica larvae to cold and heat is facilitated by trehalose accumulation. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part A 152: 518-523. | PDF

Elnitsky, M. A., J. B. Benoit, R. E. Lee, and D. L. Denlinger. 2008. Desiccation tolerance and drought acclimation in the Antarctic collembolan Cryptopygus antarcticus. Journal of Insect Physiology 54: 1432-1439. | PDF

Benoit, J. B., G. Lopez-Martinez, S. A. Philips, M. A. Elnitsky, J. A. Yoder, R. E. Lee, and D. L. Denlinger. 2008. The seabird tick, Ixodes uriae, uses uric acid in penguin guano as a kairomone and guanine in tick feces as an assembly pheromone on the Antarctic Peninsula. Polar Biology 31: 1445-1451. | PDF

Benoit, J. B., G. Lopez-Martinez, M. A. Elnitsky, R. E. Lee, and D. L. Denlinger. 2008. Adaptations for the maintenace of water balance by three species of Antarctic mites. Polar Biology 31: 539-547. | PDF

Elnitsky, M. A., S. A. L. Hayward, J. P. Rinehart, D. L. Denlinger, and R. E. Lee. 2008. Cryoprotective dehydration and the resistance to inoculative freezing in the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica. Journal of Experimental Biology 211: 524-530. | PDF

Lopez-Martinez, G., M. A. Elnitsky, Benoit, J. B., R. E. Lee, and D. L. Denlinger. 2008. High resistance to oxidative damage in the Antarctic midge Belgica antarctica, and developmentally linked expression of genes encoding superoxide dismutase, catalase and heat shock proteins. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 38: 796-804. | PDF

Michaud, R. B., J. B. Benoit, G. Lopez-Martinez, M. A. Elnitsky, R. E. Lee and D. L. Denlinger. 2008. Metabolomics reveals unique and shared metabolic changes in response to heat shock, freezing, and desiccation in the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica. Journal of Insect Physiology 54: 645-655. | PDF

Philip, B. N., S. -X. Yi, M. A. Elnitsky, and R.E. Lee. 2008. Aquaporins play a role in desiccation and freeze tolerance in larvae of the goldenrod gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis. Journal of Experimental Biology 211: 1114-1119. | PDF

Schulte, G. G., M. A. Elnitsky, J. B. Benoit, D. L. Denlinger and R. E. Lee. 2008. Extremely large aggregations of collembolan eggs on Humble Island, Antarctica: a response to early seasonal warming? Polar Biology 31: 889-892. | PDF

Teets, N. M., M. A. Elnitsky, J. B. Benoit, G. Lopez-Martinez, D. L. Denlinger and R. E. Lee. 2008. Rapid cold-hardening in larvae of the Antarctic midge Belgica antarctica: cellular cold-sensing and a role for calcium. American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 294: 1938-1946. | PDF

Williams, J. B. and R. E. Lee. 2008. Differences in cold tolerance, desiccation resistance, and cryoprotectant production between three populations of Eurosta solidaginis collected from different latitudes. Journal of Comparative Physiology B 178: 365-375. | PDF

Benoit, J. B., G. Lopez-Martinez, M. A. Elnitsky, R. E. Lee, and D. L. Denlinger. 2007. Moist habitats are essential for adults of the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica (Diptera: Chironomidae), to avoid dehydration. European Journal of Entomology 104: 9-14. | PDF

Benoit, J. B., G. Lopez-Martinez, M. R. Michaud, M. A. Elnitsky, R. E. Lee, and D. L. Denlinger. 2007. Mechanisms to reduce dehydration stress in larvae of the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica. Journal of Insect Physiology 53: 656-667. | PDF

Hayward, S. A. L., J. P. Rinehart, L. H. Sandro, R. E. Lee, and D. L. Denlinger. 2007. Slow dehydration promotes desiccation and freeze tolerance in the Antarctic midge Belgica antarctica. Journal of Experimental Biology 210: 836-844. | PDF

Shreve, S. M., S. -X. Yi, and R. E. Lee. 2007. Increased dietary cholesterol enhances cold tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster. CryoLetters 28: 33-37. | PDF

Yi, S. -X., C. W. Moore, and R. E. Lee. 2007. Rapid cold-hardening protects Drosophila melanogaster from cold-induced apoptosis. Apoptosis 12: 1183-1193. | PDF

Benoit, J. B., J. A. Yoder, G. Lopez-Martinez, M. A. Elnitsky, R. E. Lee, and D. L. Denlinger. 2006. Habitat requirements of the seabird tick, Ixodes uriae (Acari: Ixodidae), from the Antarctic Peninsula in relation to water balance characteristics of eggs, nonfed and engorged stages. Journal of Comparative Physiology B 177: 205-215. | PDF

Lee, R. E. and D. L. Denlinger. 2006. Entomology on the Antarctic Peninsula: the southernmost insect. American Entomologist 52: 84-89. | PDF

Lee, R. E., K. Damodaran, S. -X.Yi, and G. A. Lorigan. 2006. Rapid cold-hardening increases membrane fluidity and cold tolerance of insect cells. Cryobiology 52: 459-463. | PDF

Lee, R. E., M. A. Elnitsky, J. P. Rinehart, S. A. Hayward, L. H. Sandro, and D. L. Denlinger. 2006. Rapid cold-hardening increases the freezing tolerance of the Antarctic midge Belgica antarctica. Journal of Experimental Biology 209: 399-406. | PDF

Rinehart, J. P., S. A. L. Hayward, M. A. Elnitsky, L. H. Sandro, R. E. Lee, and D. L. Denlinger. 2006. Continuous up-regulation of heat shock proteins in larvae, but not adults, of a polar insect. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 103: 14223-14227. | PDF

Williams, J. B. and R. E. Lee. 2005. Plant senescence cues entry into diapause in the gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis: resulting metabolic depression is critical for water conservation. Journal of Experimental Biology 208: 4437-4444. | PDF

Yi, S. -X. and R. E. Lee. 2005. Changes in gut and Malpighian tubule transport during seasonal acclimatization and freezing in the gall fly Eurosta solidaginis. Journal of Experimental Biology 208: 1895-1904. | PDF

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2000-2004

Yi, S. -X. and R. E. Lee. 2004. In vivo and in vitro rapid cold-hardening protects cells from cold-shock injury in the flesh fly. Journal of Comparative Physiology B 174: 611-615. | PDF [The original article is available at springerlink.com.]

Nelson, D. R. and R. E. Lee. 2004. Cuticular lipids and desiccation resistance in overwintering larvae of the goldenrod gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis (Diptera: Tephritidae). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B 138: 313-320. | PDF

Ellsbury, M. M. and R. E. Lee. 2004. Supercooling and cold-hardiness in eggs of western and northern corn rootworms. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 111: 159-163. | PDF

Williams, J. B., N. C. Ruehl, and R. L. Lee. 2004. Partial link between the seasonal acquisition of cold-tolerance and desiccation resistance in the goldenrod gall fly Eurosta solidaginis (Diptera: Tephritidae). Journal of Experimental Biology 207: 4407-4414. | PDF

Shreve, S. M., J. D. Kelty and R. E. Lee. 2004. Preservation of reproductive behaviors during modest cooling: rapid cold-hardening fine-tunes organismal response. Journal of Experimental Biology 207: 1797-1802. | PDF

Yi, S. -X. and R. E. Lee. 2003. Detecting freeze injury and seasonal cold-hardening of cells and tissues in the gall fly larvae, Eurosta solidaginis (Diptera: Tephritidae) using fluorescent vital dyes. Journal of Insect Physiology 49: 999-1004. | PDF

Williams, J. B.
, J. D. Shorthouse and R. E. Lee. 2003. Deleterious effects of mild simulated overwintering temperatures on survival and potential fecundity of rose-galling Diplolepis wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Journal of Experimental Zoology 298A: 23-31. | PDF

Bennett, V. A., R. E. Lee, J. S. Nauman and O. Kukal. 2003. Selection of overwintering microhabitats used by the Arctic woollybear caterpillar, Gynaephora groenlandica. CryoLetters 24: 191-200. | PDF

Lee, R. E. and S. J. Hankison. 2003. Acquisition of freezing tolerance in early autumn and seasonal changes in gall water content influence inoculative freezing of gall fly larvae, Eurosta solidaginis (Diptera, Tephritidae). Journal of Insect Physiology 49: 385-393. | PDF

Irwin, J. T., and R. E. Lee. 2003. Cold winter microenvironments conserve energy and improve overwintering survival and potential fecundity of the goldenrod gall flies (Eurosta solidaginis). Oikos 100: 71-78. | PDF

Williams, J. B., J. D. Shorthouse and R. E. Lee. 2002. Extreme resistance to desiccation and microclimate related differences in cold-hardiness of overwintering gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) on roses in southern Canada. Journal of Experimental Biology 205: 2115-2124. | PDF

Irwin, J. T. and R. E. Lee. 2002. Energy and water conservation in frozen versus supercooled larvae of the goldenrod gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis (Fitch) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Journal of Experimental Zoology 292: 345-350. | PDF

Davis, D. J. and R. E. Lee. 2001. Intracellular freezing, viability, and composition of fat body cells from freeze-intolerant larvae of Sarcophaga crassipalpis. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 48: 199-205. | PDF

Castrillo, L. A., R. E. Lee, J. A. Wyman, M. R. Lee and S. T. Rutherford. 2001. Field persistence of ice-nucleating bacteria in overwintering Colorado potato beetles. Biological Control 21: 11-18. | PDF

Castrillo, L. A., S. T. Rutherford, R. E. Lee and M. R. Lee. 2001. Enhancement of ice-nucleating activity in Pseudomonas fluorescens and its effect on efficacy against overwintering Colorado potato beetles. Biological Control 21: 27-34. | PDF

Irwin, J. T., V. A. Bennett and R. E. Lee. 2001. Diapause development in frozen larvae of the goldenrod gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis Fitch (Diptera: Tephritidae). Journal of Comparative Physiology B 171: 181-188. | PDF

Kelty, J. D.
and R. E. Lee. 2001. Rapid cold-hardening of Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae) during ecologically-based thermoperiodic cycles. Journal of Experimental Biology 204: 1659-1666. | PDF

Irwin, J. T.
and R. E. Lee. 2000. Mild winter temperatures reduce survival and potential fecundity of the goldenrod gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis (Diptera: Tephritidae). Journal of Insect Physiology 46: 655-661. | PDF

Kelty, J. D. and R. E. Lee. 2000. Diapausing pupae of the flesh fly Sarcophaga crassipalpis (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) are more resistant to inoculative freezing than non-diapausing pupae. Physiological Entomology 25: 120-126. | PDF

Castrillo, L. A., R. E. Lee, M. R. Lee and S. T. Rutherford. 2000. Identification of ice nucleating active Pseudomonas fluorescens strains for biological control of overwintering Colorado potato beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 93: 226-233. | PDF

Ramlov, H. and R. E. Lee. 2000. Extreme resistance to desiccation in overwintering larvae of the gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis (Diptera, Tephritidae). Journal of Experimental Biology 203: 783-789. | PDF

Rivers, D. B., R. E. Lee and D. L. Denlinger. 2000. Cold hardiness of the fly pupal parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis is enhanced by its host Sarcophaga crassipalpis. Journal of Insect Physiology 46: 99-106. | PDF

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1995-1999

Holmstrup, M., J. P. Costanzo and R. E. Lee. 1999. Cryoprotective and osmotic responses to cold acclimation and freezing in freeze-tolerant and freeze-intolerant earthworms. Journal of Comparative Physiology B 169: 207-214. | PDF

Kelty, J. D. and R. E. Lee. 1999. Induction of rapid cold-hardening by cooling at ecologically relevant rates in Drosophila melanogaster. Journal of Insect Physiology 45: 719-726. | PDF

Bennett, V. A., O. Kukal and R. E. Lee. 1999. Metabolic opportunists: Feeding and temperature influence the rate and pattern of respiration in the high arctic woollybear caterpillar, Gynaephora groenlandica (Lymantriidae). Journal of Experimental Biology 202: 47-53. | PDF

Costanzo, J. P., T. L. Humphreys, R. E. Lee, J. B. Moore, M. R. Lee and J. A. Wyman. 1998. Long-term reduction of cold hardiness following ingestion of ice-nucleating bacteria in the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Journal of Insect Physiology 44:1173-1180. | PDF

Lee, R. E. and J. P. Costanzo. 1998. Biological ice nucleation and ice distribution in cold-hardy ectothermic animals. Annual Review of Physiology 60: 55-72. | PDF

Davidson, E. C. and R. E. Lee. 1998. When cells freeze over: investigating solute concentration, osmosis, and cryopreservation. The Science Teacher 65: 28-31. | PDF

Lee, M. R., R. E. Lee, J. M. Strong, S. R. Minges and J. A. Mugnano. 1998. Reduction of cold hardiness using ice-nucleating fungi and surfactants. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 89: 103-109. | PDF

Collins, S. D., A. L. Allenspach and R. E. Lee. 1997. Ultrastructural effects of lethal freezing on brain, muscle and Malpighian tubules from freeze-tolerant larvae of the gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis. Journal of Insect Physiology 43: 39-45. | PDF

Costanzo, J. P., J. B. Moore, R. E. Lee, P .E. Kaufman and J. A. Wyman. 1997. Influence of soil hydric parameters on the winter cold hardiness of a burrowing beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). Journal of Comparative Physiology B 167: 169-176. | PDF

Bennett, V. A. and R. E. Lee. 1997. Modeling seasonal changes in intracellular freeze-tolerance of fat body cells of the gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis (Diptera:Tephritidae). Journal of Experimental Biology 200: 185-192. | PDF

Bennett, V. A., N. L. Pruitt and R. E. Lee. 1997. Seasonal changes in fatty acid composition associated with cold-hardening in third instar larvae of Eurosta solidaginis. Journal of Comparative Physiology B 167: 249-255. | PDF

Frisbie, M. P. and R. E. Lee. 1997. Inoculative freezing and the problem of winter survival for freshwater macroinvertebrates. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 16: 635-650. | PDF

Burks, C. S., R. J. Stewart, G. Needham and R. E. Lee. 1996. Cold hardiness in the ixodid ticks (Ixodidae). In: Acarology IX: Vol. 1, Proceedings (eds. R. Mitchell, D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham and W. C. Welbourn), pp. 85-87. Ohio Biological Survey, Columbus, Ohio. | PDF

Kelty, J. D., K. A. Killian and R. E. Lee. 1996. Cold shock and rapid cold-hardening of pharate adult flesh flies (Sarcophaga crassipalpis): effects on behavior and neuromuscular function following eclosion. Physiological Entomology 21: 283-288. | PDF

Collins, S. D.
, A. L. Allenspach and R. E. Lee. 1996. Comparative ultrastructure of brain, muscle, and Malpighian tubule from the freeze-tolerant Eurosta solidaginis (Fitch) (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae after chemical fixation and high pressure freezing. Problems in Cryobiology 1: 3-12. | PDF

Lee, R. E., J. P. Costanzo and J. A. Mugnano. 1996. Regulation of supercooling and ice nucleation in insects. European Journal of Entomology 93: 405-418. | PDF

Mugnano, J. A., R. E. Lee and R. T. Taylor. 1996. Fat body cells and calcium phosphate spherules induce ice nucleation in the freeze-tolerant larvae of the gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis (Diptera, Tephritidae). Journal of Experimental Biology 199: 465-471. | PDF

Needham, G. R., D. C. Jaworski, C- P. Chen and R. E. Lee. 1996. Cold-hardiness of a laboratory colony of lone star ticks. Journal of Medical Entomology 33: 706-710. | PDF

Troyer, H. L., C. S. Burks and R. E. Lee. 1996. Phenology of cold hardiness in reproductive and migrant monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in southwest Ohio. Journal of Insect Physiology 42: 633-642. | PDF

Burks, C. S., R. L. Stewart, G. R. Needham and R. E. Lee. 1996. The role of chilling injury and inoculative freezing in cold tolerance of Amblyomma americanum, Dermacentor variabilis and Ixodes scapularis. Physiological Entomology 21: 44-50. | PDF

Lee, R. E., R. A. Dommel, K. H. Joplin and D. L. Denlinger. 1995. Cryobiology of the freeze-tolerant gall fly Eurosta solidaginis: Overwintering energetics and heat shock proteins. Climate Research 5: 61-67. | PDF

Lee, R. E. 1995. Using microrespirometers to measure oxygen consumption by insects and small invertebrates. American Biology Teacher 57: 284-285. | PDF

Steigerwald, K. A., M. R. Lee, R. E. Lee and J. C. Marshall. 1995. Effect of biological ice nucleators on insect supercooling capacity varies with anatomic site of application. Journal of Insect Physiology 41: 603-608. | PDF

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1990-1994

Strong-Gunderson, J. M., R. E. Lee and M. R. Lee. 1994. Ice nucleating active bacteria increase insect mortality at high subzero temperatures. CryoLetters 15: 385-392. | PDF

Morason, R. T., A. L. Allenspach and R. E. Lee. 1994. Comparative ultrastructure of fat body cells of freeze-susceptible and freeze-tolerant Eurosta solidaginis larvae after chemical fixation and high pressure freezing. Journal of Insect Physiology 40: 155-164. | PDF

Larsen, K. J. and R. E. Lee. 1994. Cold tolerance including rapid cold-hardening and inoculative freezing in migrant monarch butterflies in Ohio. Journal of Insect Physiology 40: 859-864. | PDF

Yocum, G. D., J. Zdarek, K. H. Joplin, R. E. Lee, D. C. Smith, K. D. Manter and D. L. Denlinger. 1994. Alteration of the eclosion rhythm and eclosion behavior in the flesh fly, Sarcophaga crassipalpis, by low and high temperature stress. Journal of Insect Physiology 40: 13-21. | PDF

Larsen, K. J., R. E. Lee and L. R. Nault. 1993. Influence of developmental conditions on cold-hardiness of adult Dalbulus leafhoppers: Implications for overwintering. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 67: 99-108. | PDF

Lee, R. E., J. G. McGrath, R. T. Morason and R. M. Taddeo. 1993. Survival of intracellular freezing, lipid coalescence and osmotic fragility in fat body cells of the freeze-tolerant gall fly Eurosta solidaginis. Journal of Insect Physiology 39: 445-450. | PDF

Denlinger, D. L., R. E. Lee, G. D. Yocum and O. Kukal. 1992. Role of chilling in the acquisition of cold tolerance and the capacitation to express stress proteins in diapausing pharate larvae of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 21: 271-280. | PDF

Strong-Gunderson, J. M., R. E. Lee and M. R. Lee. 1992. Topical application of ice-nucleating-active bacteria decreases insect cold tolerance. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 58: 2711-2716. | PDF

Lee, R. E., J. M. Strong-Gunderson, M. R. Lee and E. C. Davidson. 1992. Ice nucleating bacteria decrease the cold-hardiness of stored grain insects. Journal of Economic Entomology 58: 371-374. | PDF

Chen, C. -P., R. E. Lee and D. L. Denlinger. 1991. A comparison of the responses of tropical and temperate flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) to cold and heat stress. Journal of Comparative Physiology B 160: 543-547. | PDF

Chen, C. -P., R. E. Lee and D. L. Denlinger. 1991. Cold shock and heat shock: a comparison of the protection generated by brief pretreatment at less severe temperatures. Physiological Entomology 16: 19-26. | PDF

Kukal, O., D. L. Denlinger and R. E. Lee. 1991. Developmental and metabolic changes induced by anoxia in diapausing and non-diapausing flesh fly pupae. Journal of Comparative Physiology B 160: 683-689. | PDF

Chen, C. -P.
, D. L. Denlinger and R. E. Lee. 1991. Seasonal variation in generation time, diapause and cold hardiness in a central Ohio population of the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata. Ecological Entomology 16: 155-162. | PDF

Moore, M. V. and R. E. Lee. 1991. Surviving the big chill: overwintering strategies of aquatic and terrestrial insects. American Entomologist 37: 111-118. | PDF

Czajka, M. C. and R. E. Lee. 1990. A rapid cold-hardening response protecting against cold shock injury in Drosophila melanogaster. Journal of Experimental Biology 148: 245-254. | PDF

Johnston, S. L. and R. E. Lee. 1990. Regulation of supercooling and nucleation in a freeze intolerant beetle (Tenebrio molitor). Cryobiology 27: 562-568. | PDF

Strong-Gunderson, J. M., R. E. Lee, M. R. Lee and T. J. Riga. 1990. Ingestion of ice nucleating active bacteria increases the supercooling point of the lady beetle Hippodamia convergens. Journal of Insect Physiology 36: 153-157. | PDF

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1984-1989

Lee, R. E. 1989. Insect cold-hardiness: To freeze or not to freeze. BioScience 39: 308-313. | PDF

Bennett, L. E. and R. E. Lee. 1989. Simulated winter to summer transition in diapausing adults of the lady beetle (Hippodamia convergens): supercooling point is not indicative of cold-hardiness. Physiological Entomology 14: 361-367. | PDF

Baust, J. G. and R. E. Lee. 1987. Multiple stress tolerance in an Antarctic terrestrial arthropod: Belgica antarctica. Cryobiology 24: 140-147. | PDF

Chen, C. -P.
, D. L. Denlinger and R. E. Lee. 1987. Cold-shock injury and rapid cold-hardening in the flesh fly, Sarcophaga crassipalpis. Physiological Zoology 60: 297-304. | PDF

Lee, R. E. and J. G. Baust. 1987. Cold-hardiness in the Antarctic tick, Ixodes uriae. Physiological Zoology 60: 499-506. | PDF

Chen, C. -P., D. L. Denlinger and R. E. Lee. 1987. Responses of nondiapausing flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) to low rearing temperatures: Developmental rate, cold tolerance and glycerol concentrations. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 80: 790-796. | PDF

Lee, R. E., C. -P. Chen, M. H. Meacham and D. L. Denlinger. 1987. Ontogenetic patterns of cold-hardiness and glycerol production in Sarcophaga crassipalpis. Journal of Insect Physiology 33: 587-592. | PDF

Lee, R. E., C. -P. Chen and D. L. Denlinger. 1987. A rapid cold-hardening process in insects. Science 238: 1415-1417. | PDF

Lee, R. E., R. A. Ring and J. G. Baust. 1986. Low temperature tolerance in insects and other terrestrial arthropods: Bibliography II. Cryo-Letters 7: 113-126. | PDF

Rojas, R. R., R. E. Lee and J. G. Baust. 1986. Relationship of environmental water content to glycerol accumulation in the freezing tolerant larvae of Eurosta solidaginis (Fitch). Cryo-Letters 7: 234-245. | PDF

Lee, R. E. and E. A. Lewis. 1985. Effect of temperature and duration of exposure on tissue ice formation in the gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis (Diptera, Tephritidae). Cryo-Letters 6: 25-34. | PDF

Lee, R. E., and J. G. Baust. 1985. Low temperature acclimation in the desert spider, Agelenopsis aperta. Journal of Arachnology 13: 129-136. | PDF

Lee, R. E., E. H. Bryant and J. G. Baust. 1985. Fecundity and longevity of houseflies after space flight. Experientia 41: 1191-1192. | PDF

Lee, R. E. and D. L. Denlinger. 1985. Cold tolerance in diapausing and non-diapausing stages of the flesh fly, Sarcophaga crassipalpis. Physiological Entomology 10: 309-315. | PDF

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1980-1984

Rojas, R. R., R. E. Lee, T. Luu and J. G. Baust. 1984. Temperature dependence-independence of antifreeze turnover in Eurosta solidaginis (Fitch). Journal of Insect Physiology 29: 865-869. | PDF

Strassmann, J. E., R. E. Lee, R. R. Rojas and J. G. Baust. 1984. Caste and sex differences in cold-hardiness in the social wasps, Polistes annularis and P. exclamans (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Insectes Sociaux 31: 291-301. | PDF

Baust, J. G. and R. E. Lee. 1983. Population differences in antifreeze/ cryoprotectant accumulation patterns in an Antarctic insect. Oikos 40: 120-124. | PDF

Lee, R. E., D. Friday, R. Rojas, H. James and J. G. Baust. 1983. An evaluation of eluent recycling and column life for HPLC analysis of carbohydrates. Journal of Liquid Chromatography 6: 1139-1151. | PDF

Baust, J. G., R. E. Lee, R. Rojas, D. L. Hendrix, D. Friday and H. James. 1983. Comparative separation of low molecular weight carbohydrates and polyols by HPLC: Radially compressed amine modified silica versus ion exchange. Journal of Chromatography 261: 65-75. | PDF

Lee, R. E., and J. G. Baust. 1983. Physiological adaptations of Antarctic terrestrial arthropods. Antarctic Journal of the United States 17: 193-195. | PDF

Baust, J. G. and R. E. Lee. 1982. Adaptive potential of terrestrial invertebrates: Maritime Antarctic. Antarctic Journal of the United States 16: 175-176. | PDF

Timm, R. M. and R. E. Lee. 1982. Is host castration an evolutionary strategy of bot flies? Evolution 36: 416-417. | PDF

Lee, R. E. and J. G. Baust. 1982. Respiratory metabolism of the Antarctic tick, Ixodes uriae. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 72A: 167-171. | PDF

Zachariassen, K .E., J. G. Baust and R. E. Lee. 1982. A method for quantitative determination of ice nucleating agents in insect hemolymph. Cryobiology 19: 180-184. | PDF

Baust, J. G. and R. E. Lee. 1982. Environmental triggers to cryoprotectant modulation in separate populations of the gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis (Fitch). Journal of Insect Physiology 28: 431-436. | PDF

Baust, J. G., R. E. Lee and H. James. 1982. Differential binding of sugars and polyhydric alcohols to ion exchange resins: Inappropriateness for quantitative HPLC. Journal of Liquid Chromatography 5: 767-779. | PDF

Lee, R. E., and J. G. Baust. 1982. Absence of metabolic cold adaptation and compensatory acclimation in the Antarctic fly, Belgica antarctica. Journal of Insect Physiology 28: 725-729. | PDF

Baust, J. G., R. E. Lee and R. A. Ring. 1982. The physiology and biochemistry of low temperature tolerance in insects and other terrestrial arthropods: A bibliography. Cryo-Letters 3: 191-212. | PDF

Timm, R. M. and R. E. Lee. 1981. Do bot flies, Cuterebra (Diptera: Cuterebridae), emasculate their hosts? Journal of Medical Entomology 18: 333-336. | PDF

Baust, J. G. and R. E. Lee. 1981. Environmental "homeothermy" in an Antarctic insect. Antarctic Journal of the United States 15: 170-172. | PDF

Hendrix, D. L., R. E. Lee, H. James and J. G. Baust. 1981. Separation of carbohydrates and polyols by a radially compressed HPLC silica column modified with TEPA. Journal of Chromatography 210: 45-53. | PDF

Baust, J. G. and R. E. Lee. 1981. Divergent mechanisms of frost-hardiness in two populations of the gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis. Journal of Insect Physiology 27: 485-490. | PDF

Lee, R. E., K. E. Zachariassen and J. G. Baust. 1981. Effect of cryoprotectants on the activity of hemolymph nucleating agents in physical solutions. Cryobiology 18: 511-514. | PDF

Lee, R. E. and J. G. Baust. 1981. Seasonal patterns of cold-hardiness in Antarctic terrestrial arthropods. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 70A: 579-582. | PDF

Lee, R. E. 1980. Physiological adaptations of Coccinellidae to supranivean and subnivean hibernacula. Journal of Insect Physiology 26: 135-138. | PDF

Lee, R. E. 1980. Summer microhabitat distribution of some centipedes in a deciduous and coniferous community of central Ohio (Chilopoda). Entomological News 91: 1-6. | PDF

Lee, R. E. 1980. Aggregation of lady beetles on the shores of lakes (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). American Midland Naturalist 104: 295-304. | PDF

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